Hemolyzing (hemolytic) Escherichia coli in adults and children
In the human intestine is home to a large number of microorganisms. They participate in the process of digestion and assimilation of food. A lot of them it is conditional-pathogenic microflora. This means that normal bacteria do not cause harm to the body. Under certain factors, they start to parasite, causing acute infectious diseases. One of such bacteria is called the hemolytic E. coli.
The second name of a microbe is Escherichia. So she is named after the German scientist Theodor Acharya microbiologist, who discovered it in the nineteenth century.
The properties of the microorganism
Hemolytic coli is a gram-negative bacterium that is more resistant when exposed to the immune system and drugs. In the normal functioning of the body and a good protective forces of the body, the bacteria produces fatty acids, b vitamins and is involved in metabolic processes. The Escherichia are several types. The most dangerous kind – hemolytic.
When adverse factors, such as food poisoning, decreased immunity, E. coli starts to multiply rapidly, forming colonies in the intestines, mucous membranes of the urinary tract (ureters, urethra, bladder).
Bacteria able to survive in soil, water, feces. Rapidly killed by boiling, direct sunlight in disinfecting solutions. Favorable environment for reproduction – food, especially dairy, where the bacterium in 3-5 hours forms colonies.
How transmitted infection, the mechanism of its development
Source and reservoir of E. coli is a living organism – human or animal. Infection occurs through food. Infection to occur, it is necessary that the body has got large number of bacteria. This is possible only in the conditions of the use of infected products.
When consumption of contaminated food people are not aware. A large number of Escherichia coli and its toxins will not affect the taste, odor, color products.
The list of dishes and products that are most likely to be the source of infection:
- meat, fish, milk;
- vinaigrette, salads and sauces;
- pastries, cakes, creams;
- products that have not undergone heat treatment.
Cases of hemolytic E. coli more frequently recorded in the warm season.
The mechanism of development of bacteria and toxins enter the blood. There they strike the mucous membranes, cause inflammation and structural changes in the small intestine. At the same time develops General intoxication of the organism. The Escherichia not spread throughout the body, mainly localized in the intestine.
The clinical picture of infection
The minimum incubation period lasts for 3 days, average – 4-5 days, maximum 6 days.
Hemolyzing E. coli in adults once in the digestive tract initially causes symptoms of gastroenteritis:
- discomfort and pain in the abdomen (epigastric region), which are aching or sharp in character, sometimes cramping;
- nausea, heaviness in the stomach;
- in cases of moderate severity – vomiting;
- diarrhea of moderate intensity;
- insignificant increase in temperature;
- dizziness, sometimes headache;
- loss of appetite, weakness, fatigue;
- dehydration of the body.
If the condition is unstable or severe, the person has pale skin, blue skin tone. The heartbeat slows, blood pressure decreases. If severe dehydration develops, a person can experience seizures, shock.
Features of development of infection in children
Hemolyzing E. coli in children as a pathogen develops in case of error in the food – poor feeding infant formula, the violation storage of dairy products, infected breast milk, lactose intolerance. Also in children the infection because of the immaturity of the digestive system by reducing the immunity.
Escherichia, once in the digestive tract, leads to an imbalance of microflora. Escherichia coli in infants and toddlers the first months of life causes goiter. The beneficial bacteria is still not settled in the intestine, and pathogenic microbe leads to a decrease in their number.
Typical symptoms in infants:
- The child intestinal colic, paroxysmal abdominal pain, which intensified after feeding.
- Disappears appetite, the baby refuses to take food.
- The inflammatory process in the stomach and intestines prevents the normal passage of food. The kids have more and more cases of regurgitation.
- The smaller the child, the more he arrests violation of absorbability of nutrients in the intestine.
- Diarrhea – stool is liquid, foamy, mucus, smell putrid, sour.
- In children the first year of life there is weight loss.
- Kids not sleeping well, fussy, crying a lot.
A dangerous symptom for the child's body is dehydrated. It features:
- dry skin and mucous membranes;
- the formation of skin wrinkles that are not smooth;
- rare urination (less than 4 hours);
- crying without tears.
Adults often infection spreads to the urinary system and causes inflammation. It can cause cystitis (inflammation of bladder), pyelonephritis (infection of kidney pelvis). Women diagnosed adnexitis – inflammation of the uterine appendages (ovaries, fallopian tubes, ligaments of the uterus). In men, prostatitis (inflammation of prostate).
In the elderly, debilitated, chronic diseases, may be some complications:
- thrombosis (obstruction of a blood clot) of the blood vessels of the film, which binds and strengthens the digestive organs to the back wall of the abdomen;
- acute heart failure;
- sepsis – bacterial infection in the blood;
- hypovolemic shock – a sharp decrease in BCC (circulating blood volume);
- toxic shock – the mass death of bacteria and the release of large amounts of toxins.
Hemolytic Escherichia coli in infants may cause hemolytic uremic syndrome. Because unformed and weak immunity resistance of child's body low. E. coli is capable of destroying the blood capillary walls and disrupt blood circulation.
Hemolytic E. coli in the child that causes these signs of the development of the syndrome:
- a sharp rise in body temperature;
- blood in the stool;
- severe inflammation of the large intestine;
- on the background pale skin hemorrhage;
- small vessel thrombosis in severe cases, necrosis;
- the symptoms of kidney failure.
With timely treatment this condition in 93-97% of cases are reversible.
Methods for diagnosis of hemolytic infection
In order to correctly detect and decode the type of the pathogen, conducted bacteriological examination of such a biomaterial: feces, vomit, food remnants. If you did gastric lavage, sent for analysis of rinse water.
Bacteriological method of research
The resulting material in the laboratory is inoculated into a container of nutrient medium (Petri dish).
To answer diagnosis to be effective, the material must be taken before the beginning of medicamentous treatment.
On average, colonies of bacteria grow for 2-4 days. This duration is a disadvantage of this method. Laboratory doctors study selected microbes and their properties, and give a conclusion. If the patient's symptoms resolved and give a clear picture of the disease, the inoculum is performed on several nutrient media. At the same time doing samples on the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibacterial preparations.
The sooner the material delivered to the laboratory, the more accurate the diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is not in fact the presence of bacteria, but by its quantity as well as E. coli in the feces of the child in the valid values is the norm.
Other research methods
Rapid diagnostic serological method used for this take blood. The method determines the presence of antibodies to hemolytic E. coli in the serum. This method has a high diagnostic value and bacteriological approaches. Serological tests – RA, REEF, ELISA, rnga, RSK.
In parallel, the patient is administered General clinical studies of blood, urine, feces (for the presence of mucus, pus, blood, undigested food).
When the choice of treatment take into account age and General condition of the patient, the severity of the illness, predominant symptoms, analyze the body's response to drugs.
The fight against pathogen
To suppress activities of Escherichia coli prescribed antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed means of fluoroquinolones group. Have a wide and potent spectrum of activity, low toxicity on the body. Quickly penetrates the tissues and the bacteria themselves. Syndrome of resistance of pathogens develops slowly.
A number of penicillin – amoxicillin, ampicillin. Nitrofuranov row furazolidone, nifuroxazide, nitrofurantoin.
Fight against dehydration
In mild course of the disease is sufficient to prescribe oral rehydration. The patient should drink at least 3 liters of fluid per day. This will help restore the fluid balance and to compensate for the loss of fluid in the body. For this prescribed rehydration preparations are available in the form of powder for preparation of solution.
Means oral rehydration:
In severe cases, prescribe saline solutions for intravenous infusion – Trisol, kvartasol, acesol, chlosol.
The fight against intoxication
Infusion detoxification therapy is aimed at removing toxins from the body by introducing into the blood a large amount of liquid. To do this, use the solutions of glucose and salt. They are administered intravenously, not very fast. If the patient's condition is severe, the ratio of glucose and salt is 2:1, with the average course of the disease is 1:1.
- Ringer Solution.
Approach to therapy echrishiosis complex. To achieve maximum and rapid effect, to treat patients is required in all directionsat the same time, eliminating all symptoms.
Pharmacological symptomatic treatment:
- Sorbents for purification of the gastrointestinal tract – smectite, enterosgel, POLYSORB, Bionorm, Lactofiltrum, APSCO.
- Antidiarrheal – Imodium DIARA, pentas, sulgin, enterofuril, Linex, loperamide.
- Antispasmodics to eliminate the discomfort and abdominal pain – no-Spa, spazmalgon, drotaverine hydrochloride, spazieren, plantex, Dibazol.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve inflammation of internal organs – ibuprofen, diclofenac, Ketoprofen, naproxen, indomethacin.
- Eubiotics (probiotics, prebiotics) to restore the intestinal flora – lactulose, laktovit, Bifidumbacterin, bioflor, subalin, Linex, atsilakt.
- Vitamin complexes.
If bacteria detected in urine, antibiotics, uroseptic and dietary Supplements to maintain the body. Gynecological diseases prescribe drugs to relieve inflammation of the ovaries.
Throughout treatment it is important to stay hydrated and diet. In the acute period prescribed table No. 4. It is recommended for intestinal pathology with intense diarrhea – fractional and frequent meals, fats and carbohydrates are reduced, the salt is not more than 10 g per day.
With the improvement and normalization of stool prescribed diet No. 2, it provides the body with all essential nutrients.
Hemolytic coli in terms of modern medicine is not harmful for the body. Prompt treatment allows you to completely get rid of the infection and to avoid complications. To prevent infection, you must observe the rules of storage and preparation of foods, avoid contact with sick people.