Norovirus intestinal infections in children and adults: symptoms and treatment
Both adults and children often suffer from intestinal infections, which are caused by different pathogens. Among them is norovirus, which causes the development of so-called intestinal influenza. The symptoms and treatment of norovirus intestinal infections in children and adults a little different from the treatment of rotavirus infection, but certain differences still exist.
General characteristics of the virus
Noroviruses as a rotaviruses are considered the main pathogens of all intestinal infections. Rotavirus and norovirus was originally not distinguished, therefore the patients in all cases put the diagnosis – "rotavirus infection". In 1972, due to a number of genetic studies of norovirus allocated a separate group. It was found that this pathogen belongs to the family Caliciviridae.
Now 25 known strains of norovirus, each of which poses a risk to human health. Most often the causative agent, penetrating into the body, triggers the development of acute gastroenteritis, or intestinal flu. This bacterium is very contagious and easily transmitted from person to person.
The stomach flu is more prevalent in the cold season, although it can be transmitted and summer. The incubation period after entry into the body is 12 to 48 hours. During this time period a person does not feel sick, but can infect other people.
Mainly enteric norovirus infection occurs in the form of light. This disease is accompanied by unpleasant symptoms that completely disappear in 2-3 days, even without the help of a doctor. Medications are prescribed to accelerate the healing process or if the disease is unusually difficult.
Ways of transmission
An infectious disease begins after penetration into the organism of norovirus. There are three mechanism of transmission:
- Food – by eating poorly washed fruits, vegetables and berries. Most often, the infection occurs in summer in the period of mass ripening of fruit production.
- Water and infection occurs through ingestion of water, in which there are agents. This is typical for open ponds where the water is not chlorinated. In summer bathing in lake or river, you can catch the stomach flu.
- Contact-household – bacilli get into the intestinal tract via nedomytye utensils, dirty hands or some household items.
The person who contracted the norovirus, is considered to be contagious during the incubation period, during the acute phase, and about three days after the full decrease all the unpleasant symptoms.
After a full recovery occurs unstable immunity to the disease, which lasts no more than two months. After this period a person can get sick again intestinal infection.
Signs of the disease
Norovirus intestinal infection characterized by the appearance of disorders of the digestive system. The main symptoms of the disease are:
- persistent nausea and profuse vomiting;
- severe diarrhea with mucus;
- cutting pain in the abdomen;
- unmotivated drowsiness and headache;
- lack of appetite and loss of taste;
- a slight rise in body temperature;
- the urge to defecate accompanied by pain;
- respiratory symptoms – sore throat, runny nose and watery eyes.
Most often, these conditions require no treatment and disappear after a few days. In particularly serious cases, especially in young children, without adequate medical care dehydrated. In the body of the sick person disturbed water and electrolyte balance, which can lead to coma or even death.
Small children, the elderly and pregnant women are most prone to this disease. The disease in these patient groups is very difficult, in some cases need urgent hospitalization.
If you have a sick child under 3 years old, we urgently need to call the pediatrician. Only a doctor can make the correct diagnosis and appoint adequate treatment. To self-medicate young children is strictly prohibited. It threatens not only loss of precious time, but also the development of severe complications in children.
The manifestation of the first symptoms norovirus infections can take a number of actions that will help the patient's condition:
- If severe vomiting can be washed stomach a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Because of this the body will be removed the most part of pathogenic organisms and decomposition products.
- Do a cleansing enema, which uses salted water or solution regidrona.
- The patient strenuously otpaivat to avoid dehydration. A suitable solution regidrona, which is given often, but in small portions. Young children drink this solution with great reluctance or even refuse to eat. In this case, a baby otpaivat compotes, fruit drinks or tea.
For otpevanie adults and children can not use carbonated drinks, kvass and milk. All of these products will further irritate the gastric mucosa and contribute to the growth of bacteria.
- Give any absorbents, suitable even for the classicactivated charcoal, which is previously ground into powder and diluted in a small volume of water.
- Human intestinal infection is put to bed, to the side to avoid zahlebyvayas vomit.
The room in which the patient lies must be frequently ventilated. All surfaces are regularly wiped with disinfectant. If the condition worsened, despite the assistance provided, then you need urgently to call a doctor, especially if we are talking about a child or old man.
What else to help the patient
When norovirus it is important to maintain electrolyte balance in the organism and rejuvenate the patient. For that a strong decoction of rice with raisins. Two tablespoons clear rice pour a liter of water and bring to a boil. Add a tablespoon of washed raisins and simmered on a slow fire about half an hour.
The broth cool and give the patient half a Cup every 20-30 minutes. In this healing drink lots of minerals and vitamins, in addition, a decoction of rice has enveloping properties and gently relieves irritation of the stomach.
Principles of treatment of severe cases
If norovirus is severe, your doctor may prescribe several drugs to stabilize the patient's condition. In special cases, the treatment carried out in a hospital infectious disease ward of the hospital. Treatment Protocol looks like this:
- Carry out intravenous infusion of saline and glucose, to restore the water balance in the body.
- Shown restorative vitamins.
- When uncontrollable vomiting prescribed antiemetics, for example, reglan.
- According to the testimony may be designated antibacterial or antimicrobial drugs. They are appointed only after receiving the results of cultures of feces and vomit.
- Frequently prescribed symptomatic treatment to maintain the normal functions of the liver and heart.
- Give the patient plenty to drink. Most often it is pure water without gas, sometimes it added glucose.
The medicine to eliminate the diarrhea in the first time do not give. Diarrhea from organism pathogenic microorganisms and toxins, is self-cleaning. If the interval between urination in the toilet is not incremented and the state is not normal, prescribed smectite. This medication gently removes the inflammation from the intestinal wall and reduces motility.
Any disease always harder and more expensive to treat than to prevent, especially if we are talking about severe cases. A vaccine against norovirus is not, but, despite the fact that these germs are resistant to many external factors and keep their activity, prevention elementary. In order not to fall ill with an intestinal infection, you need to follow the following rules:
- Frequently wash hands with soap and water during the day. Especially after going to the toilet, walking on the street, or playing with Pets.
- To buy food only in designated places. Sometimes saved the ruble on vegetables or fruits is health and nerves.
- All herbal products are well washed in running water, and then pour boiling water. Under the action of high temperatures, many pathogens die.
- Drink only boiled water or that which is intended for direct consumption.
- Possible food products subjected to heat treatment.
- To observe cleanliness and order in the kitchen. Cutting boards should be separate for different types of products – meat, fish, vegetables, fruit and bread.
Kitchen cloth and sponge is changed every few days. It is important to remember that this is the main source of infection. Microbes with kitchen rags get out on the dishes, and then in the human body.
Any intestinal infection is very unpleasant, but panic is not necessary. First you need to objectively assess the patient's condition, provide first aid and if necessary call a doctor. When time started proper treatment of the disease passes unnoticed in just a few days.