Staphylococcal poisoning and how to prevent
Delicious and fresh food are sometimes the cause of food intoxication. This means that in cakes, pastries, milk actively propagated aureus – a pathogenic microorganism. Once in the bloodstream, it forms infectious lesions, provoking extensive tissue inflammation. Staphylococcal poisoning is manifested typical symptoms, in the absence of drug therapy causes severe complications.
The mechanism of the disease
Staphylococci are gram – positive bacteria, widespread in soil and air. Individual members are representatives of the normal cutaneous microflora of humans. Facultative anaerobes are divided into pathogenic and opportunistic pathogens involved in certain factors. Most often staphylococci prefer to form numerous colonies in the nasopharynx, oral cavity, on the damaged epidermis.
Pathogenic microorganisms are able to multiply even in highly concentrated solutions of salt and sugar. But an acidic environment is harmful to the membranes of bacteria – they stop growing and die.
Poisoning enterotoxins most often occurs in the warm season. Temperature of 25-35 °C are optimal for the activity of staphylococci, and in the cold their growth is slowing. Even during a deep freeze contamination of food gram-positive cocci do not die within a few months. Moreover, during heating of milk up to 100 °C some strains retain the ability to reproduce for 20-30 minutes. But the combination of high humidity and a temperature of 70-80 °C is detrimental to pathogens. After getting into a favorable environment they strenuously to produce:
- endotoxins entering the inside of the human body from the environment;
- exotoxins produced directly in the tissues and organs.
When damage to the skin, especially in the presence of purulent cavities, reducing the body's resistance to bacterial infections pathogenic staphylococci aktiviziruyutsya, triggers toxicity. From the blood stream they spread from the primary tumor, causing a new inflammation. Food contamination by microbes, contain huge amounts of enterotoxins that bind red blood cells and cause oxygen starvation of the brain cells. Food may not contain live staphylococci, for human toxicity sufficiently developed their endotoxins.
Sources of poisoning
Staphylococcal intoxication is most likely to occur after consuming whole milk and products made from it. A few hours after penetration of the pathogen formed enterotoxins sufficient to cause poisoning. It does not matter whether the milk is boiled or pasteurized – for the reproduction of staphylococci important neutral environment products. And it becomes even more favorable if the meals contain a lot of carbohydrates: glucose, sugar, starch. It's all there in abundance in custard, which is used in the preparation of pastries and cakes.
Poisoning can occur after consumption of meat of infected animals. Staphylococci infect pigs and cattle with inflammatory diseases of the skin and (or) internal organs. But often germs get into foods because of lack of hygiene during processing and packing of meat by the staff.
Fish can also cause poisoning, especially canned. Taste, color, texture sprat in tomato sauce sprat absolutely no change, even with extensive colonization. Interesting fact – staphylococci prefer to infect the food, which has passed thermal processing, and not raw ingredients for its manufacture.
Pathogenic microorganisms released when you cough or sneeze of a person with an acute bacterial infection. These conditions include tonsillitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, tonsillitis. In contact with food particles saliva is infection with Staphylococcus.
Gram-positive bacteria provoke extensive skin lesions with the formation of large ulcers:
- Thermal and chemical burns.
- Deep abrasions, cuts, cracks.
- Large abscesses.
If a sick person comes in contact with meat, dairy, fish products in the home or at work, then contamination is inevitable. If the factory Packed food bacillicarrier, the poisoning may take the character of the epidemic.
Improper food storage contributes to the active development of enterotoxins by Staphylococcus. To prevent poisoning, do not permanently leave the food on the table, after the purchase, you must immediately place in the refrigerator packing cakes or cakes.
People with strong immune systems can avoid poisoning. The body will produce a sufficient number of T-lymphocytes to neutralize foreign agents. And people with poor circulation often suffer from intoxication due to insufficient formation of antibodies, their inability to bind to antigens.
Symptoms of intoxication
Poisoning by pathogenic microorganisms is developing rapidly. Regardless of the concentration of enterotoxins incubation period of infectious agent isa couple of hours. The first symptom of intoxication by Staphylococcus be sharp, cramping, painful spasms of the abdomen. Then connect the other signs of poisoning:
- diarrhea, which is allocated liquid, frothy stools;
- false urge to defecation;
- hyperthermia above subfebrile indexes;
- bloating, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, belching;
- cold sweats, fever, chills;
- the swelling of the lymph nodes of different localization;
- joint and muscle aches;
- pale skin.
For this type of poisoning characterized by the frequent absence of diarrhea. By infection with Staphylococcus diarrhea only occurs in half of affected.
The infected person becomes emotionally unstable. He experiences increased anxiety, which abruptly gives way to apathy and drowsiness. Such as contribute to vertigo, tremor of upper and lower limbs, impaired coordination.
First aid and treatment of poisoning
With extensive intoxication of the victim is hospitalized, and treatment is carried out in stationary conditions. So if you experience symptoms of poisoning should call a doctor to assess the condition of the person, the introduction of antistaphylococcal vaccines. While the doctor is EN route should provide the patient emergency care:
- If the victim is unconscious, you need to flip him on his side. This will allow to avoid hit of undigested food into the respiratory tract.
- Need gastric lavage with 2-3 liters of warm water, which dissolved the crystals of potassium permanganate or tablespoon of salt. Induce vomiting to discharge from the stomach of pure water.
- You need to give the victim strong sweet tea, any adsorbents or sorbents.
On the first day of treatment do not eat, recommended to drink plenty of liquids and rest. In the future, the victim of poisoning are assigned a diet low in sugar and foods rich in carbohydrates.
Not at home to eliminate diarrhea. Pharmacological agents will facilitate the human condition, but will provoke severe complications of poisoning. Along with loose stools from the body displayed the pathogens, but now they remain in the gastrointestinal tract. The hospital carried out detoxification therapy solutions of salts and glucose, antimicrobials, probiotics. For increasing the resilience of the patient is assigned a receiving immunomodulators, Immunostimulants, vitamins and minerals.
Prevention of poisoning
Prevention of infection with staphylococci is the lack of favorable conditions for active reproduction of pathogens. Food industries should not be allowed to the processes people with skin injuries or suffering from diseases of the respiratory tract. At such enterprises should be carried out periodic control over observance of rules of hygiene staff.
In everyday life an excellent prevention of poisoning will be eating, which has passed a long heat treatment. You should not purchase the products in the spontaneous markets, to hesitate to ask for quality certificates, learn about the storage conditions. If you encounter a viral or bacterial diseases do not self medicate. Therapy should take place under the supervision of a physician, in compliance with all its recommendations.