What is detoxification therapy: medications, pharmaceuticals
Failure to follow safety procedures when handling toxic substances, improper storage of pesticides leads to acute or chronic intoxications of organism. Even if timely first aid in the tissues of internal organs, blood vessels and bones accumulates elevated concentrations of toxic compounds. Detoxification therapy contribute to the gradual elimination of toxins from the body, restore damaged cells, rapid recovery of the person.
Methods detoxification therapy
Timely cleansing the body of toxins is often the only way to save a person's life. Many hazardous compounds instantly absorbed in the mucous membranes of the larynx, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract. Occurs when poisoning vomiting often does not help to improve the condition – the poison is already circulating through the bloodstream, entering into a chemical reaction with erythrocytes.
Only complex events with the use of pharmacological agents that have the ability to destroy the newly formed compound and remove toxins from the body before the onset of severe, irreversible consequences. Detoxification therapy can be performed in two main ways:
- extracorporeal detoxification. A large group of therapies with the use of specialized technologies for removing poison from the body. Found wide application in the treatment of alcoholic and narcotic intoxication, regardless of the form of disease (acute or chronic). Extracorporeal detoxification is indispensable in the treatment of poisoning by the chemical arsenic compounds, mercury, chlorine, cyanides and barbiturates;
- intracorporeal detoxification. Purification is carried out using compounds capable of binding to the surface atoms of a poisonous toxin with their subsequent excretion. Regardless of the method of ingestion of a toxic substance or pathogenic micro-organism intracorporeal detoxification is the most efficient method of first aid. The principles of action of anti-venoms and antidotes based on fast elimination of the poison with chemical compounds, neutral for the human body.
Intracorporeal detoxification is commonly used in treatment of acute drug or alcohol intoxication. For chronic stages of poisoning used extracorporeal detoxification.
Contraindications for the use of all methods of cleansing a bit. These include individual intolerance of the main components of the reactants. Not recommended the use of activated charcoal in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Adsorbent irritate the stomach, causing her thinning, pitting.
When used as a detoxification therapy
Detoxification is not just for removing toxic substances, but also to eliminate the causes of the disease. After using it the body gets rid of accumulated salts and toxins, which contributes to the cure of pathologies of the liver and urinary system. Especially useful detoxification therapy in the formation of kidney sand and small stones.
This technique of removing toxins helps to mobilize all human resources to combat the disease by cleansing the blood, internal membranes of the stomach, intestines from the accumulated metabolic products and pathogenic microorganisms.
Detoxification therapy is used in the formulation of the diagnoses listed below.
- Intoxication. Decrease the life of the organism by ingestion of a toxic or poisonous substance. As a rule, the clinical picture of intoxication are similar for all types of toxins and differs only by the manifestation of certain individual symptoms and their occurrence time. In response to the penetration of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and chemical compounds the body implements a protective response, which generally is not enough.
- The toxicosis. After entering harmful microorganisms in the bloodstream, the body activates T lymphocytes to destroy foreign protein. In some cases, they begin to destroy its own cells and tissues, leading to serious consequences for the person. Autoimmune diseases are often accompanied by allergic manifestations.
Specific detoxification therapy includes the use of antidotes and substances that increase the body's immune defenses. In some types of poisoning is the most effective intracorporeal detoxification, and detoxification with use of drugs that increase the production of enzymes. They are able to bind and utilize poisonous compounds to increase functional activity of all systems of human activity.
With extensive damage to the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary system does not make sense introduction the decontamination of pharmacological agents. The damaged tissue is not able to absorb them for associating foreign protein or toxic compounds. In such cases, it is used exclusively in vitro detoxification.
Detoxification therapy in infectious diseases and normalizesrestores the water-salt, electrolyte metabolism, reduces oxygen starvation of tissues, increases their functional activity. The infectious diseases and their metabolic products of exogenous and endogenous origin are removed from the body. This method of treatment allows to eliminate the deficit of fluid, reduces excessive blood viscosity.
This method of purification is most often used at impossibility of intracorporeal detoxification or in long-term accumulation of the body toxins with alcohol, drug or chemical poisoning. Extracorporeal detoxification includes the following methods:
- apheresis. With a special device, the blood is passed through a centrifuge, where from each other separated blood cells and toxins, failed to form stable compounds. The cleaned blood stays in the human body and toxic substances are sent for biochemical studies;
- dialysis. The technique of blood purification uses a semipermeable membrane to separate blood cells from toxic compounds. As a result of the procedure is more small molecules are filtered out, and high-molecular compounds remain on the surface of the membrane. Dialysis is used for removal of pathogenic microorganisms, products of metabolism and toxic substances;
- hemosorption. Applies extensive intoxication of psychoactive substances, antipsychotics, opiates, synthetic drugs and methyl alcohol. For the blood purification device is used, in which the role of sorbents are given detoxification medicines (charcoal). Often two methods are used when poisoning with substances likely to cause irreversible damage to the liver cells;
- ultraviolet irradiation of blood. Used in the treatment of alcoholic and narcotic intoxication. Detoxification therapy is based on the ability of the blood under the influence of ultraviolet radiation to reduce its viscosity. The result is the destruction of pathogens, activation of the immune system, clean the blood of accumulated toxins. Doctors diagnosed after the procedure improving overall health, reducing the severity of allergic reactions, stimulation of hematopoiesis.
If intoxication by substances of endogenous origin is carried out detoxication therapy by the method of plasmapheresis. Some of the blood taken from a vein and placed in the apparatus, designed on the basis of the centrifuge. In the device the blood is separated into cells and plasma. Plasma with toxic substances removed, and the cells diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride solution and introduced back.
An infection that threatens the health and life of the patient, applies the technique of artificial kidney, or haemodialysis. Method is used if damaged by toxic substances of the renal parenchyma, the breach of glomerular filtration, a decrease in functional activity of the cups and pelvis. Intracorporeal detoxification in such cases is meaningless, even when binding and neutralization of toxins will not be their removal from the body. With hemodialysis extrarenal blood purification from toxic substances of endogenous and exogenous origin.
After getting inside the body of a human pathogen or chemical agent of the toxins associated with the protein in the blood or tissues, and the part remains unchanged. Therefore, when carrying out intracorporeal detoxification is used etiotropic and pathogenetic therapy.
For binding, destruction and removal of pathogens of viral infections are used a means of detoxification, the drugs of blood immunoglobulins:
In recent years, a large selection of domestic immunoglobulins for parenteral use. Detoxification therapy of infectious diseases is antimicrobial and cephalosporin antibiotics. For the destruction of pathogens the patient is recommended to take antiviral drugs for intravenous injection.
Getting into the bloodstream of toxic substances causes not only acute poisoning – may be infected with harmful bacteria through broken skin or food poisoning. For the prevention of acute intoxication victims are administered serum against tetanus, diphtheria, gangrene or botulism.
Etiotropic treatment in the composition of intracorporeal detoxification is not complete without the use of means to prevent the occurrence of severe complications. These include:
- antistaphylococcal plasma;
- antidiphtheritic serum.
For receiving the decontamination agents in the research volunteers were administered low doses of toxic compounds or dilution with pathogenic microorganisms. On the basis of the generated antibodies was developed krovezamenauschie plasma. In acute poisoning, use the followingtypes:
After travels to exotic countries, often to professionals treated people with rare types of intoxication. Before carrying out therapy in such patients are assigned etiotropic treatment use of immunoglobulins for binding and excretion of foreign proteins or toxins.
Pathogenetic detoxification treatment
Detoxification therapy is aimed at elimination of causes of negative process and prevent recurrence. For this purpose you can use:
- the decrease in viscosity of blood, improving its circulation through the vessels, restoring blood supply to all internal organs and brain;
- elimination of cellular oxygen starvation, which is especially important in toxic encephalopathy of different etiology;
- the normalization of the functioning of the organs responsible for cleansing the body and the withdrawal of toxic compounds.
With hemodilution reduced content of pathogenic microorganisms and toxic substances in the bloodstream, lymph, lymph nodes. The volume of circulating plasma acts on the receptors of blood vessels to all parts of the heart, improves filtration of urine, toxic compounds are excreted from the body.
To restore active circulation, patients are injected colloidal plasma substitutes, and when metabolic disorders – electrolytes. If a reduced volume of circulating plasma, plasma substitutes are used immediately after getting inside the human body of viruses, bacteria or toxic substances. Severe lesions, accompanied by a loss of brain cells, and require intravenous jet introduction, and with a mild degree of poisoning is sufficient to use only intravenous injections.
Detoxification therapy is indispensable for violations of peripheral blood circulation, when entering the inside of the body toxins increase the permeability of small blood vessels and capillaries. For this purpose, a means of reducing the ability of toxins to form large conglomerates with blood cells and drugs that have antispasmodic properties. Reproductory binding molecules of toxic compounds and excreted in the urine.
Intoxication toxic metals or polumetallam, alcohol poisoning, drug overdose provoke persistent dehydration even after using intracorporeal detoxification. To maintain water-salt balance is the constant introduction of saline solution orally or parenterally. In the treatment of a newborn or small child uses a special device – a nasogastric tube. Pharmacological agents are injected directly through it, in portions or continuously in small portions.
In severe intoxication, possible collapse of the brain regions in the binding of molecular oxygen toxic substances. To the supply of cells is not interrupted intracorporeal detoxification is carried out by oxygenation. Oxygen therapy is used in hospitals in the event of emergency situations at the scene.
Additional oxygen may be carried out by such methods:
- Using nasopharyngeal probe.
- Via nasal cannula.
- With the use of oxygen masks.
In the treatment of acute poisoning patients additionally introduced red blood cells as their own is destroyed or is firmly blocked by the molecules of toxic substances. Additionally the ventilator is able to resume active functioning of the brain and visceral organs. To support the urinary system, often enough to control volume of circulating fluid. Due to the fact that many toxins are able to accumulate in the kidney structural elements, the amount of urination is not reduced significantly.
At home detoxification therapy is to replenish the body's mineral salts, liquid, protein compounds. For purification of cells and tissues from toxins used:
- fruit juices;
- berry fruit drinks;
- mineral water without gas;
- decoctions and infusions of medicinal herbs;
- green tea;
For the treatment of acute or chronic intoxication used drugs detoxification: smectite, activated charcoal, enterosgel, white coal. Use adsorbents recommended by doctors to restore the water-salt balance. To support the weakened body of the victim by using immunomodulators, vitamin complexes, and sparing diet.