The first aid for poisoning
From the right to administer first aid if poisoning food may depend on a person's life. This disease is very common among people of any age, can lead to serious complications and malfunction in the heart, internal organs, nervous system. In this article, we looked at what is the first aid for poisoning, the major causes and symptoms of this disease, situations in which hospitalization of the patient to the hospital.
What are the main causes of food poisoning
There are many factors and reasons that could cause food poisoning. Any, even the most harmless product, may cause this disease. The main factors in the development of food poisoning include:
- failure to observe rules of personal hygiene. Thanks to dirty hands you can get a large number of bacteria;
- contaminated with intestinal bacteria of food. For example, eggs can become infected with salmonellosis. Bacteria remain in the meat, fish and eggs when insufficient heat treatment. Your foods can be of normal taste and fresh;
- cooking person who is sick or recently recovered from an intestinal infection. It can infect food through poorly washed hands after using the toilet. It is this reason often causes mass poisoning of children in kindergartens, schools;
- the use in food of rotten, spoiled and expired products. Threat can become all dishes, even vegetable;
- mushroom poisoning. Threat can be not only toxic, but also edible mushrooms:
- infection of botulism from canned goods. This infection can develop in all closed containers with products, in compotes, jam, vegetable, meat and canned fish. Poisoned canned swollen, on their surface there is a bacterial plaque.
Clinical signs of food poisoning
The speed of onset of symptoms depends on the causative agent or toxinthat provoked him, and the amount eaten poor quality food. On average symptoms increases during the first 6 hours.
Remember that in case of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms, the first symptoms appear after 15-20 minutes. In botulism the symptoms can develop within 1-2 days.
The following table shows the main symptoms and signs of food poisoning.
|The name of the symptom||Description||Possible features|
|Nausea and vomiting||Vomit contain remnants of food, gastric juice, bile, mucus.
Vomiting brings temporary relief. It may occur once or be repeated.
|With the development of gastro-intestinal poisoning vomit are black in color. This pathology can develop in cases of poisoning in patients with ulcer and chronic gastritis.|
|Abdominal pain||Can be pulling, dull or sharp. First is localized in the stomach, then spreads throughout the abdomen.||In dysentery characterized by development of pain and cramping during defecation.
With the development of acute pancreatitis develop acute abdominal pain, which is surrounding the character.
|Diarrhea||For poisoning food is characterized by profuse diarrhea.||When salmonellosis feces green, frothy. In dysentery – watery, there may be streaks of blood.|
|Hyperthermia||The increase in temperature develops as a result of intoxication. In case of bacterial intestinal infection it can grow to 39 degrees.
The fever is accompanied by headache, General weakness. Possible increased sweating, chills.
|With the development of acute gastritis (possible complications acute poisoning), the temperature rises to 37.5 degrees.|
|Tachycardia||Palpitations develops on the background of the expressed intoxication syndrome and dehydration. The pulse rate may exceed 100-120 beats/min.||Increased body temperature is observed in the reflex acceleration of the heart rate.
The temperature increases by 1 degree, accelerates the heart rate by 10 beats/min.
|Shortness of breath||Breathing becomes frequent and superficial.||At a poisoning with poisonous mushrooms may slow the breathing rate.|
|Disruption of the nervous system||Develops in severe intoxication. Characterized by convulsions, impaired consciousness, deep coma state.||In cases of poisoning by botulism develops a speech disorder, the patient feels numbness of the limbs, impaired vision.|
First aid for food poisoning
First aid for food poisoning should begin with the first minutes of development of clinical manifestations of the disease. The first step is to call an ambulance. On the phone, briefly describe the situation, list the symptoms of the patient, please indicate your exact address. First aid in case of poisoning must be immediately, very often it affects the prognosis of the patient.
Remember that help with food poisoning in the home is only the first part of the treatment. The patient needs skilled medical care.
Begin first aid for food poisoning before arrival of physicians. You can not know exactly how fast they will arrive. Traffic jams, accidents, bad weather conditions or lack of at the momentfree medical can lead to delay in arrival of doctors.
Below we have reviewed the first aid for poisoning until the arrival of medical personnel.
The provision of first aid starts with gastric lavage. This procedure is necessary for removal from it of toxins, bacteria and remnants of food eaten. During poisoning gastric motility can stop. This phenomenon is a protective mechanism that protects the body from further absorption of the toxins into the blood.
Gastric lavage should be carried out in the first minute after the onset of symptoms.
In order to wash out the stomach at home, you should gulp drink a liter of plain water and then her snatch. Provoke yourself throw up is very simple. For this you need to have in my mouth 2 fingers and press them on the root of the tongue. One washing is not enough. This procedure is preferably carried out several times in a row.
Remember that gastric lavage is not performed when black or bloody vomit, and so zemelnim children up to 3 years.
First aid in case of household poisoning involves performing a cleansing enema. It is for the quick release of the intestine from toxins, pathogens, poisons.
Your enema is a simple boiled water at room temperature. Do not add to the solution any drugs or substances.
The enema should be repeated several times, it is before the advent of clean wash water intestinal.
Remember that if you use warm water washing will not be effective, as the liquid is all absorbed instantly, and the cold water may cause circulatory collapse.
Drugs from the group of sorbents bind, neutralize and eliminate from the intestines of poisons and bacteria. These medications should be in every home medicine Cabinet. When performing emergency treatment for poisoning, you can use any of the drugs in this group, for example activated carbon, sorbex, APSCO, smectite.
Before their appointment, verify their safety: check the date of manufacture. It is indicated on the packaging of medications. You should also read carefully the instruction, which describes how to dosing, the rules of calculation of the required amount of medication for the patient.
Drink plenty of liquids
You need to drink to start immediately after the gastric lavage. Liquid is needed to reduce the level of intoxication and the elimination of dehydration. In order not to cause repeated vomiting episodes, better not drink in one gulp and little and often.
If poisoning you can drink mineral water without gas or sweet tea. The temperature of the drink should be at room.
What if the person is unconscious
If the patient has lost consciousness, lay it on a flat surface. To improve blood flow to the heart and brain, lift his legs. You also need to turn sideways on his head. This is necessary to prevent sticky tongue and aspiration of vomit into the lungs.
Can try to give to the patient to smell the cotton wool moistened in liquid ammonia. If the person is not in a coma, he wakes up.
Before arrival of physicians control an injured heartbeat and breathing. To make it easy. The pulse is easily detectable carotid artery, which passes right under the skin of the neck. To check for breathing put your hand on the patient's chest and observe its oscillation when you inhale and exhale.
In the absence of pulse and breathing need to start doing chest compressions. Its General principles taught in school.
The first aid for poisoning (PMP) is conducted by doctors who arrived on a call. They describe actions that you manage to help the patient. The doctor will examine the patient, check the pulse and respiration, blood pressure, saturation of blood and then proceed to aid.
First aid if poisoning consists of the components listed below.
- The drip through which the patient introduces the solution, eliminating dehydration and intoxication syndrome. Can be used different solutions, such as glucose, disol, Trisol, Reosorbilact.
- Medication to eliminate vomiting and nausea (metoclopramide, reglan, osetron). They can be administered intramuscularly or intravenously.
- Antispasmodics (no-Spa, drotaverine) to eliminate pain syndrome.
- The connection of oxygen through a facial mask.
- Drugs for regulation of blood pressure, heart rate and respiration.
After the initial treatment of the patient in the emergency order hospitalityat in infectious diseases or intensive care unit, where they undergo further examination or treatment.
Peculiarities of treatment in the hospital
In the hospital the patient special medical care is given. Its volume and duration depend on the etiology (causes) poisoning. It may consist of:
- hemodialysis – cleansing the blood by using artificial kidney. It is held during intoxication of poisonous mushrooms;
- the introduction of the serum is held in case of botulism. It is very important to introduce it in the first hours of the disease, itcan stop the brain damage;
- diet. During treatment you can eat only food that is easily digested. Allowed cereals, cooked in water, chicken broth, baked apples, bananas, boiled chicken lean meat, dried white bread;
- enzymes – drugs that regulate the work of the pancreas;
- antibacterial drugs that destroy the infection;
- probiotics – drugs that regulate intestinal microflora;
- antacids, drugs that eliminate pain and heartburn in the stomach;
- sorbents – they needed to remove the residues of toxins from the intestinal canal.
Examination in cases of poisoning
In parallel with the treatment in the hospital, carried out a detailed examination of the patient. It is necessary for an accurate diagnosis, identification of the pathogen and complications of poisoning.
The main components of examination in cases of poisoning:
- General complete blood count;
- bacteriological examination of feces;
- biochemical analysis of blood;
- ultrasound examination of internal organs;
Prevention of food poisoning
It is much easier to protect yourself from food poisoning than in the future to treat and get rid of the complications caused by it. Below, we have gathered for you the simple tips by which you can protect yourself and your family from this disease:
- Buy products only on the official markets and shops. Buying them at natural markets or from the hands of the cute grandma, you can't be confident in their quality, freshness.
- Always check the date of manufacture of products of food before purchase and before preparing food.
- Do not store long-term food in the freezer, it can deteriorate and in sub-zero temperatures. Particularly harmful to re-freeze products.
- Always wash your hands with soap and water before preparing or eating food.
- Try not to buy ready meals in cooking or shopping. Try to cook a home meal. The only way you'll know when its preparation was used fresh and high quality products, good meat that did not touch her with dirty hands.
First aid for poisoning food should be in the first minutes of development of symptoms. The first call for an ambulance. Waiting for doctors, wash the sick stomach, the intestines, and give water to drink and sorbents. The treatment is carried out in the infectious diseases or the intensive care unit. Its volume and duration depend on the severity of the patient's condition and the causes of the disease. The exact diagnosis is put after a number of laboratory and instrumental examinations. Do not self-medicate toxicity. This disease can be very serious and dangerous, can lead to severe disorders in the body and to death.