Endogenous intoxication is what it is
Harm to humans is applied not only poisons coming from the environment. Endogenous intoxication is a pathological condition in which hazardous compounds are formed directly in the body. Various factors encourage the selection inside the bloodstream of toxins, but the main cause are acute and chronic forms of the disease. After medical or surgical treatment of the negative symptoms disappear, all the vital systems begin to function actively.
Distinctive features of pathology
Endogenous intoxication of the organism, or endotoxemia develops as a result of accumulation in tissues and cells excessive number of endo - and exotoxins. The disease occurs on the background of inflammatory process that causes many irreversible in the absence of treatment. Endogenous toxins degrade the surrounding tissue, provoking poisoning and its rapid spread throughout the body. As a rule, the pathological lesion is formed in the abdominal cavity, and then covers the structural elements of the kidney, capacity, cardiovascular and nervous system.
Often diagnosis detects inflammation at the stage of toxic-dystrophic muscle decay, requiring the use of all principles of its correction. Poisoning occurs in several stages, but the main source of the disease is always the body that was affected initially. This is based on more concentration of toxins in its tissues.
In the presence of high resistance to pathogenic micro-organisms reduces the risk of development of endogenous intoxication. The poisoning of exposed people, the immune status leaves much to be desired.
In the process of intoxication involves the following systems:
- barriers of biological origin, which should prevent the release of toxic compounds from the inflammatory focus;
- neutralizing substances that destroy or neutralizing the endotoxins.
A triggering factor is rarely one substance in the mechanism of endogenous intoxication involved several toxic compounds the body, penetrating the bloodstream and plasma. This condition is caused by ingestion of poisons inside the blood stream, dissemination through the vessels of the affected organ. But there is another way – the interstitial fluid and (or) lymph.
The main stages of poisoning by endotoxins
Endogenous (endogenous) intoxication includes three stages. In the primary stage detect abnormalities difficult, but biochemical tests may show a slight increase in the concentration of cells and products of protein breakdown. A toxin of internal origin at this stage may occur under the action of traumatic injuries or in the presence of inflammatory focus caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
The second stage, or stage of severe toxemia, develops after vicodine endogenous toxins in their bloodstream, they overcome the barrier of blood. Their concentration reaches the maximum level, the toxins flow of the biological liquid and spread throughout the body, penetrate into the cells and tissues. The progression of this stage of poisoning is directly dependent on human tolerance:
- Compressed phase. Under the influence of toxins violations of the internal organs, degeneration of the tissue, reducing or increasing blood flow. This is necessary to allow vital systems to fully carry out its functions.
- Decompensated phase. Pathological changes, attempts of the organism to adapt to them not lead to tangible results. Bodies do not cope with the increased load, stop functioning or are functioning only partially.
When endogenous intoxication of the body with strong immune system triggers the payment. Increases the amount and speed of krovopotera, aktiviziruyutsya T-lymphocytes (killer cells) for the destruction of toxic foreign proteins.
The lack of treatment leads to the development of severe violations of the third stage of poisoning by endotoxins. Multi-organ dysfunction is accompanied by damage of all body systems in the presence of a functional decompensation. In the blood revealed a huge number of toxins and metabolic products. The kidneys are not able to filter harmful compounds and excrete them in the urine.
Communicating with the red blood cells, endogenous toxins do not allow them to react with molecular oxygen, deliver it to the brain. Regulation of all systems of life activity ceases, resulting in cardiac arrest and breathing. At this stage even emergency resuscitation can save someone's life.
The internal sources of intoxication
The regular use of pharmacological therapy for people with chronic diseases is a necessity. The pathology occur on the background of constant reproduction damaged tissues of endotoxinsthat destroy neighboring organs, especially the liver. Such toxic compounds include:
- high concentrations of metabolic products (bilirubin, uric acid and its salts);
- substances that accumulate at the wrong exchange (freeammonia, aldehydes);
- the compounds formed by the breakdown of cells in violation of the integrity of tissues (cations, proteins, indoles, lipase);
- substances involved in the regulation of all vital systems in an excess concentration of (activated enzymes);
- the products of oxidation of fat-soluble compounds;
Some poisons, penetrating into human body from outside, can be of endotoxins. They become the source of the inflammatory focus, poison the neighboring areas of the internal organs of the products of their metabolism.
In case of violation of the endocrine system, excessive production of biologically active substances. The high concentration of hormones contributes to violations of the functional activity of other systems, provokes tissue damage, reduces the body's resistance. Often this condition is accompanied by formation of one or more inflammatory foci.
The causes of poisoning of the body with endotoxins
The syndrome of endogenous intoxication is more typical for surgery, because of the disease, causing decay of the tissues, most often treated with surgical intervention. Self-poisoning arise for the following pathologies:
- Extensive burns.
- Injury from prolonged compression or injuries.
- Pancreatitis in the acute stage.
- Inflammation of the sheets of the peritoneum.
- Malignant or benign tumors.
Organism poisoning with endotoxins may occur directly during surgical operation in an open way. The procedure is usually performed on the background of respiratory problems, significant blood loss, carrying out anesthetic procedures.
Endogenous intoxication sometimes occurs when the transplantation of donor organs. A transplant is rejected by the human body as a foreign body. Develops an inflammatory process, accompanied by destructive changes in the donor organ.
Detoxification of cells and tissues would not be complete if the human body a rising path or from the outside penetrates E. coli. To the favorable factors for its active propagation with the release of toxins are burn disease or grass with the open wound surface. When radiation injury is a disruption of lipid metabolism. Forming the resulting products have a strong toxic effect for the cells and tissues of internal organs.
The mechanisms of the pathological process
In the diagnosis with application of modern tool methods and studies of biological fluids were revealed mechanisms of action of endotoxins. As a rule, intoxication occurs when combined or changing one activity to another. In the development of domestic experts described the following mechanisms of toxicity of endogenous toxins produced in the human body:
- Production taxinomia. A significant change in the composition of biological fluids provokes changes in the metabolism. This condition usually occurs when the failure of the endocrine system, the lack of vitamins and minerals, oxygen starvation of the tissues, degeneration and decomposition.
- The retention taxinomia. Develops as a result of violation of excretion products of metabolism. For example, if reduced pulmonary gas exchange in the blood stream increases the concentration of carbon dioxide which causes endogenous intoxication.
- Rezorbtivnoe taxinomia. The decomposition of the tissues occurs the flow in the inner cavity of products of protein breakdown. This mechanism is characterized by rapid progression with bone deformation, skin surfaces, mucous membranes, soft tissues.
For determining endogenous intoxication, it is important not only to identify the provoking factor and species, but also the ability of harmful compounds to accumulate in the affected areas.
Some types of poisoning provoke necrotic tissue damagethat will not recover even with prompt medical assistance. But most of the toxins shift the balance in the body at the cellular level, which further causes disturbances in the functional activity of one of the systems. Such changes are reversible after emergent therapy.
The clinical picture of poisoning of the body with endotoxins
Despite the large number of diseases that occur with the production of endotoxins, surgery notes the common signs of intoxication. The severity of symptoms depends on the stage of poisoning:
During the acute phase of endogenous intoxication is diagnosed increased concentration of harmful compounds inside the blood stream. They connected most of the red blood cells, molecular oxygen circulates freely, the deficit occurs in the tissue of the brain. This stage is characterized by the following symptoms:
- a severe impairment of the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea or constipation;
- sweating, cold sweats, chills;
- hyperthermia, complicated by febrile condition;
- painful spasms, localized in various parts of the body;
- tremorthe upper and lower extremities;
- hypertension, which is replaced by the sharp drop in pressure to the lower indicators.
Increased toxicity endogenous toxins causes convulsions, paralysis, severe joint and muscle pain. The probability of loss of consciousness, coma, pulmonary edema and brain.
The subacute phase occurs with a slight increase in the concentration of toxic compounds. All vital systems are functioning actively, negative changes are just starting to gain momentum. When examining patients, doctors identify such signs of intoxication:
- Increased temperature to subfebrile figures.
- Nausea, indigestion, lack of appetite, weight loss.
- The person feels fatigue, dizziness, drowsiness, apathy.
- During the day the pressure increases sharply and then decreases.
- Affected suffer from headaches, which can be replaced by migraines.
Chronic stage of endogenous intoxication the most common. It develops on the background of untreated poisoning of various etiologies, malfunction of the urinary system, reducing the functional activity of the liver to clear the blood of toxins. Patients experience the following symptoms:
- disorder of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine and colon;
- emotional instability: depression, mood swings, weakness, fatigue, lethargy;
- headache, receiving a chronic course;
- pale, dry skin;
- reduction of body weight;
- arrhythmias, hypotension or hypertension.
Chronic endogenous intoxication has a negative impact on a person's appearance. Rashes appear on the skin, plenty of hair fall, exfoliate nails. Abnormal metabolism triggers the increased secretion of the sebaceous glands.
The characteristics of this stage of the poisoning refers to a significant reduction in the body's resistance to bacterial or viral infections. Aktiviziruyutsya the manifestation of allergic reactions in the development of autoimmune pathologies. Often there are violations of urination: incontinence, leakage of urine.
Diagnosis and treatment of diseases
The diagnosis is based on examination of the patient, study the results of laboratory tests of blood and urine. A huge number of diseases that cause endogenous intoxication, requires an individual approach to the survey. But in the vast majority of cases doctors are using such instrumental methods:
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
In the first stage of treatment is detoxification therapy using saline, glucose. If necessary, patients are assigned to treatments for blood purification from endotoxins: hemosorption, hemodialysis. If the poison accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract, lavage through the probe, the appointment of adsorbents or sorbents. With chronic intoxication, it is recommended the use of enemas with liquid paraffin.
After elimination of the symptoms of poisoning treatment of the underlying pathology. As a rule, all inflammatory processes is complicated by the addition of a secondary bacterial infection, so antibiotic therapy is sick. To prevent complications patients are prescribed the intake of vitamins, trace minerals, probiotics, Immunostimulants.