Detoxification – what it is
Detoxification is a process aimed at clearance of toxic substances, reducing their activity, the removal from the body. Detoxification therapy, which is carried out in case of poisoning, includes a complex of therapeutic measures to cleanse the body naturally.
Main tasks and targets:
- The route of administration of drugs, their distribution in the body.
- Maintenance and correction of water-salt (electrolyte) replacement.
- Fill the deficit of circulating blood volume.
- Elimination of toxins from the body.
Toxins there are two types. The first – exogenous, entering the body from the environment (toxins, drugs). The second – endogenous, generated by the body (excess hormones, the end products of decay).
Detoxification is the natural body toxins. This involved the liver. It transforms toxic substances into harmless, which is easy to remove from the body. There is a process of chemical modification. Toxins are oxidized and break up, then join to another substance and excreted via the kidneys or bile.
The next on is the kidneys. Displays the breakdown products of toxins, toxic chemical compounds, including drugs. Toxic substances and bacterial waste products that accumulate in the organs of the digestive system, are excreted by the intestines. In the system of detoxification also involved the lungs and skin, lymph.
If a strong poisoning, when the body is unable to cope with the toxic load, use the methods of artificial detoxification – natural cleansing, the introduction of special fluids intravenously, the use of sera and vaccines.
Methods of detoxification that can be done independently
Self-cleansing of the body, without professional medical assistance can be carried out at home under these conditions:
- an overdose of alcohol;
- mild food poisoning;
- easy poisoning by chemicals or drugs.
The main detoxification methods:
- Drink plenty of liquids. Drinking large amounts of water increases blood volume, reduces the concentration of toxic substances, reduces the load on the kidneys, which accelerates the process of removing. Need to drink small amounts frequently so as not to provoke vomiting.
- Lavage of the stomach. It aims to eliminate toxic substances from the upper gastrointestinal system. So from the body toxins, which had not yet been absorbed into the bloodstream. Lavage is performed by call artificial vomiting or using a special probe, it is desirable to clean the wash water.
- Enema. Cleanses the intestines and partially prevents absorption of toxins into the bloodstream through the intestinal wall. In mild intoxication doing a regular enema with a volume of 1-1,5 liters. In severe poisoning is carried out siphon enema, which is based on the principle of communicating vessels. The amount of water 10-12 liters. The procedure is difficult for the victim, so it is done only in a hospital and in the presence of a doctor.
- Taking drugs – sorbents. They bind toxins and do not allow them to enter the blood stream. Medications – activated charcoal, smectite, enterosgel, white coal, POLYSORB.
Detoxification in a hospital
Infusion therapy is the intravenous introduction of special solutions that adjust to fluid loss in the body, restores the composition of liquid media (blood, lymph, extracellular and cellular fluid). Maintenance of infusion solutions reduces the concentration of toxic substances, ameliorate the effects of their influence. The antitoxic action is due to increase plasma volume, so the faster the filtration process in the kidneys.
Drugs improve microcirculation and metabolic processes, provide parenteral nutrition of the body. Therapy is carried out using a glucose and saline solutions:
- saline (0.9% NaCl);
- glucose 5%;
- Hartman's solution.
Forced diuresis – rapid elimination of toxic substances by increasing the formation of urine. This effect is achieved by simultaneously introducing a large amount of detoxification solution. Per minute is produced from 0.5 to 1 ml of urine. If the proper procedure, this figure increases to 8-10 ml.
The method used for the excretion of high concentrations of acids, alkalis, medicines. Not effective in infectious intoxication.
Forced diuresis is prescribed to patients for the condition if their kidneys healthy.
- thrombosis of blood vessels;
- swelling of the lungs, brain;
- heart failure.
The main solutions – glucose in combination with diuretics, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium. The amount of fluid injected – 8 l for men, 6 years for women. The maximum allowable volume of 12 L.
Hemosorption is a blood purification by adsorption of poison with the use of the sorbent.
The patient's blood is transported througha special device that represents the cylinder filled with sorbent. The system of highways (tubes) with a pump blood from the body is passed through the apparatus.
After the procedure possible complications:
- chills, fever;
- a drop in blood pressure;
- air embolism;
This method is used in acute poisoning with chemical substances, drugs, in lesions of internal organs with no obvious signs of intoxication, patients in shock or coma.
Plasmasorbtion is the removal of toxins from plasma by binding them to the sorbent. The principle of the method is the same as in hemosorption, only through the sorbent flow plasma previously separated from blood.
- alcohol poisoning;
- heavy metal poisoning;
- severe infections – hepatitis, diphtheria, typhoid;
- endogenous intoxication;
- overdose of drugs.
Plasmapheresis is a blood sample from the body, cleaning it with the help of machine (special plasma), return it back into the bloodstream.
Mechanism of action: the blood is taken in a bottle or container, and then separate the plasma. The remaining elements of the blood is returned to the body. Plasma – the liquid part of the blood, the toxins are contained. Removing part of the plasma, reduced the concentration of toxic substances in the body.
The method allows to reduce the severity of the disease, to restore the composition of the internal fluids, to prevent the risk of adverse outcomes, shorten duration of treatment and rehabilitation of patients.
Limfosorbtsiya is a detoxification method in which carry out cleaning of lymph in a special apparatus. The fence material is carried out by drainage of the lymphatic current of the thoracic. Back liquid to inject intravenously.
Method is used if the two methods are plasmasorbtion was not effective, as well as in acute poisoning with acids, like vinegar. The average duration of the detoxification therapy week. Duration – 2 hours. The method is seldom used in the absence of alternative means, as it often gives serious complications:
- injury of large veins of the neck;
- a fistula;
- damage to the vagus nerve.
Hemodialysis or artificial kidney, is a method of cleansing the blood, bypassing the kidney. It is used in acute and chronic failure of the kidneys to remove toxins from the body.
The main indications:
- poisoning poisons;
- acute poisoning with alcohols;
- the overflow of the body fluid that threatens a person's life – when edema of the lungs, brain;
- severe violations of the salt composition of the blood.
Contraindications for hemodialysis no!
Hemodialysis is carried out on special machines. It is based on the principle of exchange of substances through special permeable membrane. On the one hand, the membrane is washed with a solution of the other blood. Method of diffusion and filtration from the blood the toxins are removed, and the blood itself is saturated with the necessary body substances.
The apparatus consists of components:
- a device for feeding the blood;
- device for the preparation and filing of the solution;
- a dialyzer device, which houses a membrane for blood purification.
Hemodialysis is prescribed in that case, if the kidneys do their job only by 10-15%. This device controls blood pressure, maintains the ratio of fluids in the body, maintains normal acid-alkaline balance of the body.
- circulatory disorders;
- nausea, vomiting;
- disorientation, convulsions;
- the destruction of red blood cells;
- an air embolism.
Detoxification of the body – an obligatory component of complex treatment of numerous pathologies: acute inflammatory processes, diseases of internal organs, poisoning, infectious diseases.