Treatment, signs and symptoms of viral infection in adults
Viral infection, the symptoms and treatment which directly depend on the type of infectious agent, is a dangerous condition for adults and children. Viruses pathogenic genetic carriers, which are parasitic in human cells, affect their regenerative capacity, entire genetic mechanisms. Finally to expel from the body certain types of viruses, it is impossible, on the background of therapeutic treatment, they calm down until the next exacerbation of infection. At untimely or inadequate treatment of the asymptomatic viruses may exist in the body, activities in certain periods of human life: pregnancy, colds, low immunity, adolescence. To date, effective way of getting rid of life-threatening infectious diseases is preventive vaccination, and from separate groups of infections, the best treatment is timeliness.
The nature of the pathology
Infectious diseases are combined in a group of diseases caused by various agents. The virus enters the body in different ways, might be in the body and manifest in certain circumstances. The main route of infection are:
- hematogenous (injections, unsterilized tools, blood transfusions, dialysis treatments);
- fecal-oral (through kissing, food or water, feces);
- through insect bites, water bodies (e.g., Escherichia coli).
The viral infection enters the body and begins its development inside the different organs or systems. Virus infection has fundamental differences which are expressed in the following aspects:
- the incubation period (can occur from several days to decades);
- the period of prodrome (activation of the virus after incubation);
- the height of the disease.
This scheme is suitable for any type of infection from the usual SARS to AIDS or hepatitis. Infectious diseases are very contagious, so the epidemiology of the disease always massive. Treatment of viral infections should be carried out in hospitals, as the height of the disease there are only two outcomes: recovery or death of the patient. The usual virus infection in adults lasts from 7 to 10 days.
Viruses are not cells, they are more suitable parasitic activity. They are much less bacteria. Viruses are not capable of soproizvodnje, they need special carriers.
Paradoxically, during the reproduction of the host dies, and the patient begins to feel much worse. At hit of a virus in the body, especially in the period of prodrome, malaise felt throughout the body. Rarely when the patient clearly indicates the localization of pain, discomfort. Usually suffer in one degree or another all the organs and systems.
All viral infectious agents can be classified into rapid and slow. The slower the reaction or intensity of disease, the virus more dangerous to human life. This is due to the long absence of symptoms, and therefore, a large destructive impact. Among the major and common viruses are:
- Herpetic infection. The herpes virus exists in the tissues of every human organism, but only exacerbated in the presence of precipitating mechanisms. Some people not familiar with this disease the rest of your life. The characteristic symptom of herpes is the occurrence of bubbles in different parts of the body.
- Encephalitis. Encephalitis affects the membranes of the brain, causing irreversible damage to the Central nervous system, the human mind. The lethality of the disease is high. The disease is often accompanied by coma, convulsive syndrome, paralysis of the limbs and body. Encephalitis stimulates the development of multiple organ failure and patient's death is almost 90%.
- SARS. SARS virus affects the respiratory system of a person, causes the typical symptoms of colds and flu. These symptoms are known to almost all patients. The danger of viral lesions is the chronicity of the disease or in dangerous complications (bronchitis, pneumonia).
- Viral hepatitis. The disease is characterized by liver damage and hepatic structures. On the background of the development of pathology are persistent dysfunction of an organ, serious complications can lead to death of the patient.
- Meningitis. Meningococcal disease is localized in the subcortical parts of the brain, infects the spinal-brain liquid (liquor). Spread throughout the body via the blood stream. On the background of adequate therapy remain persistent impairment of consciousness, atrophy of the muscular structures of the limbs.
- Polio. The development of the disease is accompanied by strong convulsions, loss of consciousness, inflammation of the spinal cord. Often results in paralysis. The disease usually leads to severe disability of the patient.
- Measles. Measles is characterized by appearance of red rash on different parts of the body, persistent pyrexia, cough. The measles virus is a relatively safe state, but often causes complications according to the type of meningitis or encephalitis.
- Sexual infections. Common form of infections known during the formation of any society. Today this type of infection responds well to treatment, but subject to timely detection.
Each group of infectionsis a huge list of diseases. The nature of the disease determines the degree of danger of the infectious agent. Timely diagnosis, attention to own body, prophylactic vaccination protect children and adults from the harmful effects of infection.
Symptoms of viral infection in adults are directly dependent on the nature of the damaging agent, its location and extent. Common signs include:
- small chills;
- muscle weakness and soreness;
- sensitive skin to touch;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- resistant body temperature;
- the malfunction of some organs;
- watery eyes, sore throat, cough.
The main difference between SARS from the normal flu is the manifestation in the first case, symptoms of infection followed by the addition of disorders of the respiratory system. Respiratory diseases usually start with laryngitis or pharyngitis. For example, during exacerbation of herpes infection in patients, the appearance of bubbly lesions in various parts of the body, deteriorating health, there is the irritability and soreness in the centers of the bubbles. Meningococcal disease manifests itself the strongest symptoms with headache, confusion, severe deterioration of health and other characteristic features.
The indications for hospitalization
If the usual signs of SARS does not frighten many patients and they are able to give an objective assessment of his condition, then the following are symptoms of viral infection in adults are required to immediately contact the doctor:
- maintaining a high temperature;
- fainting, loss of consciousness:
- confusion, tremors in the extremities;
- cough with sputum;
- chest pain, disability of breath;
- rash (redness, large bubbles, large spots);
- severe headache radiating to the neck;
- coughing up blood;
- a pasty face or puffiness of the limbs.
These symptoms can be regarded as a usual complication of SARS, beginning of serious disease of the brain. In unstable immunity and deterioration on the background of colds you should immediately consult a doctor.
Diagnosis of viral infections is:
- the study of the patient's complaints;
- visual inspection of the patient;
- to study the clinical history of the patient;
- immunological study:
- chest x-ray;
- analyses of urine, blood, feces.
Differential diagnosis consists in excluding life-threatening conditions. When needed doctors prescribe MRI of the brain, additional blood tests for various enzymes, other research. Timely treatment to the doctor will save health and life of the patient.
Treatment of viral infections is in compliance with the following algorithms:
- the elimination of the causes of the disease (precipitating mechanisms);
- elimination of unpleasant symptoms (pain, dyspepsia, respiratory disorders, other factors);
- bed rest and special diet.
Medication viral infection begins after an accurate diagnosis and clarify precipitating factors. So take in this disease? Normal SARS calls for the appointment of the following drugs:
- non-steroidal drugs (reduce inflammation, reduce fever, prevent pain);
- antihistamines (anti-inflammatory and anti-Allergy action);
- local drops in the nose (decongestants for a runny nose, swelling and severe nasal congestion);
- funds for the throat (relieve redness, swelling, disinfect and soothe irritated mucous membranes);
- antitussives (encourage separation of sputum, eliminate spasms in the cough reflex, reduces the irritation in the bronchi and disinfect).
Other mechanisms of pathology prescribe appropriate drugs to enhance local immunity and elimination of characteristic symptoms. For example, for the treatment of genital infections prescribe topical preparations specific introduction for men and women, HSV infection requires the administration of antiviral drugs to local and internal use. Enterovirus intestinal infection requires special preparations from the group of absorbents. It is important to understand that taking antibiotics in viral infections is not only pointless, but very dangerous for kidney, liver or stomach. The best would be to drink plenty of fluids.
Proper and adequate nutrition, a healthy lifestyle, no bad habits, increase local immunity preserve the health of any patient. When burdened with clinical history it is important to go for regular studies and to carry out preventive vaccinations. To prevent the disease or episodes of exacerbation in chronic course much easier than to treat him.