Rotavirus gastroenteritis: causes, symptoms, treatment
Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a disease caused by rotavirus infection. Effects on the body of this microorganism affects the digestive tract. The infection enters through the mouth, and then embedded in the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines, where it is intense multiplication and accumulation. Rotavirus leads to the destruction of epithelial cells of the mucosa, so impaired absorption of carbohydrates and simple sugars. And if these items will accumulate in the stomach, impair the absorption of water, the stool will become thinner.
The main signs of the disease
Rotavirus gastroenteritis is characterized by several symptoms:
- A slight increase in body temperature (37 degrees). In rare cases, the disease is accompanied by a higher temperature – above 38.
- The patient becomes lethargic, drowsy, he has decreased appetite;
- Appear dizziness and intense headaches, resembling migraine.
- diarrhoea and vomiting. While vomit can occur 2-6 times a day, and even up to 12 times. The diarrhea is very liquid, in some cases, a frothy but mucus or blood is not detected. If the disease occurs without complications, the urge to the toilet occur up to 5 times a day.
When diarrhea occurs more than 15 times, it is urgent to consult a doctor, as the disease runs hard. This can cause severe dehydration of the body.
- Appear to moderate pain at the top of the abdomen, which the patient can tolerate. Much less frequently, they occur acutely and are cramping.
- Rumbling in the abdomen, accompanied by bloating and belching. It speaks to increased flatulence.
- Due to the loss of quite a large amount of fluid urination occurs less frequently.
On average, the incubation period of an infectious disease is 3-4 days. In some cases the first symptoms appear after 15 to 20 hours after penetration of the pathogen into the body, others 7-10 days.
The disease can occur in abortive or asymptomatic. In the first case, the signs are virtually absent and very poorly expressed. As a rule, they disappear within a few days without any treatment. The second option symptoms people do not even know about the presence of the virus in the body.
How to distinguish the disease from other
Gastroenteritis is of several varieties. Thus, there is still adenovirus and coronavirus disease. As not to confuse rotavirus gastroenteritis with such pathologies? It is necessary to study the symptoms of each disease.
Adenoviral gastroenteritis is a result of ingestion of enteric adenoviruses of group F. Viruses resistant to various environmental factors. They don't die at a temperature of 36-37 degrees up to 7 days, which is sufficient for the completion of the incubation period of the disease.
This virus is not contagious, it is safe for adults. Pathology usually occurs in young children 1-2 years of age. The infection is transmitted only through direct contact with a sick child.
The incubation period of the disease is 8-10 days. The disease lasts 5-14 days and is characterized by next symptoms:
- Weak nausea in the first days of the disease, which may be accompanied by vomiting. A symptom persists for no longer than 1-3 days after the onset of gastroenteritis.
- Diarrhea that lasts 2-5 days, and then stops. Chair pasty, frothy.
- May increase the temperature and its jumps: for example, normal in the morning, and by evening rises, or Vice versa. This condition may persist for several days.
This type of gastroenteritis is often accompanied by pain in the abdomen. This is due to the fact that patients with increased mesenteric lymph nodes. Sometimes the disease occurs only in the context of fever and pain, and other symptoms are lacking.
Coronavirus gastroenteritis is a viral disease that affects the respiratory system. Pathology is very dangerous and characterized by high mortality, especially in children. The disease is contagious and occurs in every contact with the patient. Virus and transmitted by airborne droplets. In addition, the source of the virus can become wild and domestic animals. In this disease fix serious respiratory and in children disrupts the function of the lungs and bronchi. In fact, this is the cause of death.
The incubation period of the disease is 2-10 days. Then there is a number of symptoms:
- Coryza, congestion of the respiratory tract.
- General malaise, dizziness and weakness of the body.
- Sore throat, especially during swallowing.
- Respiratory distress (shortness of breath, asthmatic symptoms).
It is also possible the emergence of symptoms of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: loss of appetite, pain in the upper abdomen, violations of the chair. In most cases, the disease is easy, and after 5-7 days the patient is fully cured. More rarely the disease develops into more severe form. In this case the temperature increases a lot, there is severe vomiting, the person becomes very restless.
When gastroenteritis in children need urgent hospitalization. After 1-2 days, maybe a sharp deteriorationwell-being of the baby, and then death. Self-treatment in such cases to engage in is prohibited.
The main causes of rotavirus gastroenteritis
Rotavirus gastroenteritis is the result of ingestion of the causative agent is rotavirus. It is not airborne, and only contact-household way. While a person is contagious during the incubation period and in the last days of the disease. The virus will take effect only in the case if you get into a person's mouth. For example, after contact with the patient wash your hands and eat. Also, it can be transmitted through contaminated water.
The virus is killed by heat treatment, so before drinking water it is recommended to boil. This applies not only to well water, but bottled – often in the business of bottling water do not comply with sanitary-hygienic norms.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Viral gastroenteritis quickly treatable. Often it goes by itself. But rotavirus gastroenteritis in children up to 12 years to be treated under the supervision of a specialist, because a high probability of death. The doctor performs a diagnosis, it talks to the patient to perform his complaint and examine all the symptoms (when exactly did the temperature, it is accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, etc.).
Be sure the therapist clarifies if there are any similar symptoms in some of the relatives of the patient. In some cases, rotavirus infection is epidemiological in nature. All ill need to undergo a qualified treatment. Also the inspection – measured body temperature of the patient, examined the skin. Also, the patient should pass a stool – in most cases there is a causative agent of gastroenteritis.
If rotavirus gastroenteritis occurs in severe form, requires urgent hospitalization of the patient. However, in most cases, allowed to carry out the treatment at home. Definitely give the patient plenty of fluids (tea without sugar, mineral water without gas, a decoction of dried fruit, chicken broth). This is to prevent dehydration. If it came, the sick are taken to medical institution where he put a special IV fluids to restore electrolyte balance.
Also recommended therapeutic diet. It involves the intake of easily digestible food, rich in vitamins and minerals. Necessarily excluded from the diet dairy products, and carbohydrates (vegetables and fruits in any form). Nutrition should be a fraction (to eat often but in small portions).
For deducing from an organism of poisons and toxins should be taken chelators (smectite, activated charcoal, etc.). In addition, under the impact of the virus disrupted the gut flora, and to restore the patient is prescribed a number of drugs, which include bifidobacteria (probiotics and prebiotics).
Possible complications of the disease
The illness usually lasts no longer than a week. And if the patient takes medication, diet and fills the liquid in the body, complications should not be. However, dehydration can have some serious consequences. As a result of it develop kidney failure, there are problems with the cardiovascular system. In addition, there is intestinal dysbiosis, which is accompanied by irregular bowel movement, loss of appetite, weight change.
The disease is fatal in extremely rare cases. Death is possible in children under 5 years of age and the elderly. These groups of patients usually reduced immunity.
Prevention needs to maintain good hygiene. Need to drink only water from trusted sources, but first it is recommended to boil. Before the use of fresh vegetables and fruits should be well washed under running water. You should regularly ventilate the room, change bedding, disinfect children's toys.