Prevention of intestinal infections the basic measures
It is difficult to find a person who never suffered from intestinal infection. This disease is easily transmitted from person-to-person failure to comply with preventive measures, in the end, the infected are entire families or groups. Prevention of intestinal infections mostly kept to hygiene. These measures often enough to avoid disease.
General characteristics of the disease
Acute intestinal infections, in medical practice often used abbreviation of the OKA, is a large group of infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic and conditionally harmful bacteria, viruses and some protozoa. The most common are intestinal infections dysentery, salmonellosis, cholera, rotavirus, enterovirus, food poisoning, which is triggered by Staphylococcus. A group of diseases that are quite common and inferior in the number of cases of infection only to respiratory diseases. The bulk of the cases are children aged one to six years.
The main causes of the disease
Intestinal infection most often arise from non-compliance with elementary rules of hygiene or improper heat treatment of food products. Infection occurs when such factors:
- In direct contact with the ill person.
- When using the household items and utensils previously used by the patient.
- In the use of raw drinking water from the tap if it's not included needs cleaning.
- If dirty hands took the food.
- In the use of substandard or expired food.
- If not complied with hygiene in the kitchen for cooking and storing kitchen utensils.
- If a man swallows the water, swimming in open water.
- When drinking raw milk or not subjected to heat treatment of dairy products.
- When used nedovrsenoj meat or raw eggs.
- If after contact with animals or birds, people didn't wash my hands.
Contracting an intestinal infection can be everywhere – in public transport, shops, various organizations and children's groups. From her almost no one is immune. Pregnant women and young children the disease is especially hard, because of reduced immunity, the risk group also includes the elderly.
Carriers of intestinal infections often become insects – mostly flies. They carry pathogens on their feet. As a preventive measure necessary to protect the home from these pesky insects.
The symptoms of disease
Once the pathogen enters the human body, it is considered a vector. A few more days, the person may not even suspect that he was sick, and continue to communicate with many people. The incubation period can be from a couple hours to several weeks, depending on the type of pathogen and the human immune system.
After an incubation period of developing the acute phase of the disease, which is manifested by such symptoms:
- The gastro-intestinal tract, a number of pathological changes, nausea, uncontrollable vomiting, pain in the stomach and abdomen, watery diarrhea, sometimes with flecks of blood and mucus.
- From the Central nervous system – dizziness, pain, fever, and sometimes convulsions and mental confusion.
In particularly serious cases, when infected by a certain pathogen, quickly there is a dehydration. The patient's mucous membranes become dry, the skin becomes bluish tint and there is a strong weakness.
To prevent dehydration, which is dangerous for life, it is often necessary, but small portions, soldering a sick person. As a drink you can give water, teas, fruit drinks, fruit drinks and decoctions of herbs.
How to prevent intestinal infections
Prevention of intestinal infections is quite simple, but at the same time effective. To protect yourself and your family from this unpleasant disease, you need to follow these guidelines:
- It is good to wash under running water vegetables, fruits and berries, especially those that will be consumed raw. After washing of vegetable products it is advisable to rinse with boiling water, under the influence of high temperatures the majority of pathogens are killed.
- You need to wash your hands right after the street, the toilet, after playing with Pets, and periodically throughout the day.
- Hands are well washed before cooking, and during cooking, especially after butchering raw meat or fish.
- Eggs before cooking always wash with warm water and soap. Eggshell is infested by the pathogen Salmonella, pathogenic microorganisms during prolonged storage can penetrate inside eggs, so eat them raw is not recommended.
- You can't eat raw or undercooked meat, fish, and drink raw milk that was not purchased at the store.
We must remember that the frozen meat before cooking must be completely thawed. Due to the low core temperature, the meat can not fry.
- Prepared and raw foods should be stored separately from each other, in addition, for their dressing must be used a different Board which are preferablysign.
- Jelly, salad and other salads should be prepared just before serving, it is unacceptable their long-term storage.
- Store food needs in the refrigerator, low temperatures inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms.
- Food must be protected from flies and other insects. For this purpose you can buy special mesh cap that covers the plates.
Prevention of intestinal infections includes the contents of the home so neat. Kitchen rags and sponges should be changed regularly, as they are considered a source of infection. In addition, constantly wash the bin with a disinfectant solution.
Pay special attention to the cleanliness of the bathroom. The toilet should be washed every day with the addition of chlorine or other disinfectants.
If was the case of the OKA in the children's team
If the kindergarten or school the child got sick, a quarantine. Its duration depends on the type of pathogen. In institutions, in this case, visit the doctors of the sanitary station, which take samples from surfaces and food consumed by children. During the period of quarantine in a group or class does not accept the newcomers and those children who were absent for a long time. Quarantine is considered over when the last case of the disease has passed a certain time, most often it is 2-3 weeks.
If an acute intestinal infection ill caregiver, nurse or teacher, that is, those people who have direct contact with children, it is also a quarantine. People can go to work not when will subside the acute symptoms of the disease, but when the test results show that the pathogen is absent.
All surfaces in the class or kindergarten group is well disinfected, toilets are cleaned with chlorine, and when cooking is absolutely antiseptic. Dishes after eating to clean in soapy solution and then orietta boiling water.
Enteric infections are not uncommon, many people are daily infected with pathogenic microorganisms. When properly organized treatment all symptoms pass quickly, the person recovers in a short time.