Toxic substances skin-blister agents
Toxic substances skin-blister agents – poisons that have been developed to combat substances with high toxicity. Absorbed into the blood, these substances cause poisoning of the whole organism. By the nature of the defeat they are in the form of a deadly, along with hydrocyanic acid, sarin and phosgene. Understanding the clinical manifestations and methods of diagnosis of intoxication will help to take timely action when necessary to resolve it.
What S blister action
Skin-nervnye poisonous substances – the toxins whose effects on the human body causes acute inflammatory-necrotic mucous transformation and dermatological skin. This sulfur and nitrogen mustards, and lewisite.
Named substances are of an oily consistence, characterized by a high boiling point, low water solubility and a high level of mixing with the solvent of organic origin. This demonstrates the ability of chemical agents quickly to appear through the shoes and clothes and got absorbed into the skin.
Distinctive features Ipatovo defeat
Mustard looks like a brick colorless or brown liquid with a garlic or mustard odor. The substance evaporates slowly in the air. Used in two combat state: aerosol and condensed. The range of its vapor reaches 20 km to open area.
The effects of mustard gas can be distinguished from intoxication with other toxic substances by the following features:
- The absence of pain and discomfort during contact. The poison has analgezirutee effect on the nerve endings so one does not feel the contact with him and can not make timely protection measures. Due to the lack of irritation mustards poisoning is quite difficult to diagnose.
- The presence of the latent period of occurrence of the lesion. The duration of the lack of specific symptoms may vary in different situations and depend on the volume of affect of the poison, its state of entry into the body and individual susceptibility. Than a large dose of mustard gas have an effect on the person, the faster will develop the first symptoms. The highest sensitivity to otraslyam substance have eyes, the least – the skin. The speed of the responses also depends on the aggregate state of the poison: drip-liquid and a mist mustard are characterized by a short latent period, the vapor is longer. The maximum duration of absence of signs of lesions of up to 24 hours.
- The decrease of immunological resistance. With the defeat of the body with mustard gas it is infection caused a sharp decrease in resistance to pathogenic factors. A decrease in immune defenses contributes to the lengthening of the treatment period and a more complicated course of the disease. Especially dangerous is the phenomenon of damage to the organs of sight and respiration. To improve the condition in the conditions of medical institutions utilize prophylactic therapy with antibiotics.
- The slow process of recovery. Neuro-trophic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances, leads to slower healing process of damaged tissues and restoration of violated functions.
- Increased sensitivity of the organism to the stimulus. Repeated exposure to mustard gas on humans, even small doses of chemicals can cause serious damage.
The effects of nitrogen and sulfur mustard are quite similar. The key difference is that nitrogen mustard causes a strong irritating effect on the respiratory system and vision. The disease is characterized by an easier course of disease and faster recovery.
For intoxication vaporous mustard
A pair of mustard affect man in a variety of ways: can damage the eyes, respiratory system and skin. The severity of the process depends on the saturation of the toxic substance and the time of its effects on the body.
There are three degrees of destruction of the body due to exposure to the vapor of mustard gas:
- Easy degree. First, symptoms appear after 2-6 hours after contact with the toxin. Eyes ache, sensitive to light, their visibly reddening. After 8-12 hours there is a feeling of dry mouth, sore throat, runny nose, dry cough, loss of voice. Signs of rinofaringita over time, expressed all the more noticeable. After 15-17 hours the skin form of erythema – redness of certain skin areas. They affected areas such as inner thighs, armpits and folds of the elbows, the genital area. Possible redness of the face and neck. When heated in the area of erythema increases itching. Simultaneously with the local symptoms of intoxication are manifested in common – nausea, vomiting, headache, fever.
- The average degree. The latent period of occurrence of the intoxication is from 4 to 6 hours. Against the background of a pronounced conjunctivitis signs of damage to the respiratory system. The man has had a severe cough, copious Muco-purulent nasal discharge, difficulty breathing. Swallowing and speaking occur sore throat, cough worse night and changing environmenttemperature, it becomes wet. There are growing signs of acute tracheobronchitis, there is a necrosis of the mucous membrane of the bronchi and trachea, leading to various complications. The body temperature rises to 38 degrees. The duration of the flow of poisoning by mustard gas average weight is 1-2 months.
- Heavy degree. It describes signs of destruction adds a bluish skin and mucous membranes, shortness of breath, increased cough. Mustards is the development of pneumonia, in some cases there is pulmonary edema. In the event of heart failure, death can occur. Favorable flow poisoning contributes to improve the patient's condition after 2-3 weeks. While a complete healing is impossible.
Poisoning of condensed mustard
Under the impact of drop-liquid mustard gas there is a loss of the skin, eyes and digestive tract. The severity of reaction of the organism depends on the amount of impact substances.
The vision loss
The eye lesions are often severe and occur within 1-2 hours after contact with the toxin. The first signs of poisoning – a reaction of the cornea, manifested in photophobia, lacrimation, redness, swelling of the conjunctiva, sensation of sand in eyes, and pain of varying intensity. On the second day there is a haziness and roughness of the cornea in the area of inflammation start to occur ulcers. There is a possibility of rejection of the cornea and loss of vision.
Severe pain in the eyes caused by the accession of secondary infection, which is accompanied by the formation of pus in the anterior chamber of the eyeball and inflammation of the iris. The duration of the inflammation of the organs of vision reaches 5-6 months.
Damaging the skin the result is drop and liquid mustard gas exposure occurs in different ways. The process depends on the extent of damage:
- Damage easy form is reflected in the appearance of erythematous sections of the skin. The first symptoms occur after 12-14 hours of exposure to the poison. For 4-5 days the erythema gives way to a pronounced pigmentation and peeling of damaged skin. A week later, the symptoms of poisoning are, there is only pigmentation.
- The average form of lesion is seen in 2-4 hours. The erythema is accompanied by education after 8-10 hours of bubbles in the transient erosion at autopsy. Some time the bubbles increase in size, and then pass, leaving a pronounced erosive sites, are completely covered by epithelium in 2-3 weeks.
- Lose severe causes the development of erythematous-bullous dermatitis. Bubbles begin to form after 3-5 hours after contact with the toxic substance. On the third day they are damaged, resulting in ulcer surface. As a result of infections ulcers may develop necrotic dermatitis, which recedes after 3-4 months. On the site of ulcers formed white scars, surrounded by pigmented skin.
Defeat various skin sections are characterized by different duration and characteristics of the process:
- if the damage to the skin has been observed accelerated healing of the ulcers, without the formation of strongly defined scars;
- the defeat of the scrotum accompanied by the formation of extensive erosive surface and is a serious violation of the process of urination;
- upon contact of mustard with the feet and legs is observed the formation of trophic ulcers, characterized by a complex process of occurrence and recovery.
The defeat of the digestive system
The intake of toxic substances in contaminated water or food causes a severe intoxication of the digestive tract. The first signs of damage occur in a quarter of an hour after the receipt of mustard gas in the body. The man observed the blood flow to the gums and mucous, loose stools with bloody patches. Develop common symptoms of intoxication: weakness, slowness of reactions, convulsive phenomena. In some cases, necrotic changes occur in the stomach. From the nervous system symptoms such as anxiety, fear, temporary insanity, alternating with bouts of depression.
Developing acute heart failure can cause death in 1-2 days. Death also often found 7-10 days as a result of acute malnutrition. Under more favorable course of the disease in humans there is a General weakening of the body and anemia. In the future, likely to develop cancer.
Poisoning by lewisite
Lewisite looks like a thick oily liquid from deep brown to black, smelling of geranium. It is well soluble in fats and solvents, easy to connect with various poisonous substances. Lewisite has a higher toxic effect compared to mustard.
Symptoms of poisoning by lewisite depend on the method of penetration into the body:
- With the defeat of respiratory marked irritation of the mucous membrane, characterized by sneezing, cough, runny nose, feeling sore in her throat. Mild poisoning often healed in 6-7 days. If poisoning average degree develop bronchitis, there is shortness of breath, increasing cough with excretion of purulent sputum.Severe degree is characterized by the development of pulmonary edema. In case of positive occurrence of the disease it is cured for 4-6 weeks.
- With the defeat of the skin by lewisite at the moment of contact there is a feeling of burning and pain. There is the development of erythema, the formation of bubbles. The process is accompanied by edema and hemorrhages. Infection of affected areas is often not the case.
- The ingress of lewisite in their eyes accompanied by lacrimation and pain. During the hour there corneal opacity, swelling of the eyelids, bleeding. Under favorable prognosis recovery occurs in 2-3 weeks.
Timely provision of remedial measures depends on the degree of toxicity to humans and affected organs and systems.
To provide first aid to victims exposed to toxic substances blister the actions in the area of infection, the following activities:
- rinsing the eye with clean water or 2% soda solution;
- the application of the mask;
- purification of the naked parts of the skin and compression garment preparation, provided individual anti-gas package (IPP);
- smoke inhalation is a special composition with a bright mucous membranes of the respiratory system.
Outside of infection in the quality of aid is necessary to carry out the secondary washing of the eyes, mouth and throat. At receipt of toxic substances in the digestive system have to do the washing stomach, causing vomiting.
Emergency procedures for providing medical assistance covers the following activities:
- a fragmented sanitation;
- the application of special ointments for eye treatment;
- cleansing the stomach using a probe;
- the reception of absorbent products;
- the purpose of unithiol is the antidote to intoxication with lewisite;
- burns events.
Further action on the provision of medical care are symptomatic therapy:
- The affected areas of the skin are treated antipruritic, analgesic means. If necessary, therapy is available chemical burns.
- Treatment of the affected organs of vision produced using conservative methods with the use of antibiotics, anesthetics, antihistamines.
- Poisoning through the digestive system provides for the appointment antispasmodic and ganglioblokiruyuschih funds, antishock therapy.
Patient prescribers, to prevent the development of secondary infections and inflammatory processes. With the help of antihistamine drugs, multivitamin complexes and biostimulating funds increases protective function of the body affected by the impact of the poison.
In order to avoid intoxication skin neravnyi substances need to accurately and in a timely manner to use personal protective equipment. These include protective clothing, masks and degassing drugs: solutions of chloramine, the means provided in the IPP.
Infected clothing and personal items must be subjected to degassing in order to avoid further contamination through contact with them.