The toxic poisoning of the body: symptoms, signs of intoxication
Symptoms of poisoning is difficult to confuse with symptoms of other diseases. Painful nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and headaches reduce the quality of human life, making adjustments in long-established plans. The pharmaceutical industry and chemical industry are developing rapidly, and every day on the shelves of pharmacies and stores new drugs, household chemicals, plant growth stimulants. Improper use or storage of chemicals provoke toxic poisoning, sometimes leading to death.
What is the toxin
Poisoning – violation of the functional activity of all vital systems after entering the human body of toxins. Physicians distinguish between intentional and unintentional poisoning. The latter often occurs when careless handling of toxic substances storage or excess dosage.
Young children often experience painful symptoms due to your high curiosity to all the bright and unusual. They are attracted by the beautiful poisonous plants, neat boxes with medicines, interesting aerosol cans. Adults contribute to the appearance of intoxication in babies, keeping products and fertilizers in easily accessible places.
Even observing all safety precautions when handling toxic compound that people cannot always protect themselves from poisoning, for example, with accidental emissions of toxic substances into the environment. There are two main types of possible intoxication.
- Acute poisoning. Develops in any contact with a toxic substance. Symptoms may appear after only a few minutes. From the destructive action of the poison affects kidneys, liver, lungs. The condition requires immediate hospitalization of the victim to determine the appearance of toxic compounds and the introduction of an antidote.
- Chronic poisoning. Extremely dangerous disease because of the absence of pronounced signs of pathology. The man has no idea that his body accumulates poison, blaming the rise in temperature, and tremor of the extremities on a regular cold. As a rule, chronic poisoning by toxic compound is diagnosed accidentally during examination for other diseases.
For a long period of accumulation of harmful substances by the body is possible in industrial production. Toxic compounds are used as components of mixtures, catalysts, stabilizers. Even modern sewage treatment plant does not always ensure complete absorption of the poisonous vapors or gases (chlorine, ammonia, mercury).
The types of toxins and their effects on the human body
Possible poisoning by toxic substances lies in wait for man at every step. Even harmless ascorbic acid overdose can permanently send humans to the hospital. What can cause intoxication if misused and storage:
- alcoholic beverages;
- pharmacological drugs;
- household chemicals;
- poisonous mushrooms and plants;
- alkali, acid.
The toxic compound can be formed directly in the human body. Failure of the endocrine system, decrease in immunity, systemic or chronic diseases are on the increase in the concentration of harmful substances in the bloodstream.
The selectivity of the poison causes a range of symptoms in the victim. Such a property is extremely important in the diagnosis of poisoning and identification of species of the toxic substance. How to behave harmful compounds in the human body:
- Neurotoxic effects. After using drugs, sedatives, antidepressants may experience mental impairment, convulsions, breathing disorders. The same effect happens in cases of poisoning drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis, alcohol, carbon monoxide.
- Cardiotonic action. Overdose of cardiac glycosides, potassium salts, barium causes arrhythmias of various etiologies, has a pathological effect on the cardiovascular system.
- Hepatotoxic effects. Chlorinated hydrocarbons, phenol, acetaldehyde provoke irreversible necrosis of liver cells. Poisonous mushrooms, especially Amanita phalloides and pale, begin to destroy capacity immediately after getting into the bloodstream.
- Nefrotoksicheskoe effect. Heavy metals, ethyl alcohol, mercury, chlorine cause acute and chronic renal failure. Paired organs lose the ability to filter the blood, urine output. There is damage to the renal parenchyma, cups, pelvis, the nephrons.
- Haematological effects. Almost every toxic compound has a similar effect on the human body. Once inside the bloodstream, the molecules bind and poison destroys red blood cells. Active oxygen ceases to flow to the brain, which contributes to pulmonary edema, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure.
Poisoning by salts of heavy metals, acids, alkalis causes damage to the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. She ulcerate, and eventually the epithelial cells are replaced roughfibrous tissue.
As a toxic substance enters the body
The variety of poisons involves various ways of their penetration into the blood stream. Meeting with them can occur at home, at walk, on the production of and even undergoing medical procedures or examinations. Toxic poisoning the body with toxic substances occurs in the following way:
- injection for intravenous or intramuscular introduction of toxic compounds;
- oral when hit poison inside the gastrointestinal tract;
- after percutaneous absorption of toxic substances skin;
- inhalation inhalation of toxic gases or vapors;
- through the mucous membranes;
- by intracavitary injection of a toxic compound.
Poisoning can occur even when the concentration of active substance in solution, when washing the nose or ears, use enemas, douching.
Poisons have local toxicity, causing extensive burns and skin damage. And after penetration into the body they begin to directly affect the red blood cells, capacity or kidney cells. Especially dangerous is a violation of vascular permeability that provokes multiple hemorrhages.
Symptoms of poisoning
Signs of toxic poisoning are in direct proportion to the amount of poison, its species, ways of getting into the body. The severity of symptoms also depends on the state of human health. Sometimes toxic compounds cause only slight nausea, but there are poisons that can lead a person to death only after brief inhalation of fumes.
Doctors have noted a certain predisposition to the kind of poison. For example, widely known cases where the use of fried mushrooms with a group of people caused severe poisoning alone did not cause any harm to others.
Kids, the elderly, the chronically ill will suffer from the toxic effects much stronger than a strong young man. The symptoms of poisoning can be minor:
- Itching, peeling skin.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- A little nausea.
- Dryness of the mucous membranes.
- A temporary decrease in appetite.
Other signs of a poisoning threaten the life and health of the person:
- difficulty breathing;
- heart rhythm disorders;
- the loss of orientation in space;
- pulmonary edema;
- cardiac arrest.
The toxic effect of some poisons is a few seconds, other long-term accumulate inside the body and only after a while begin to show themselves.
First aid for poisoning
Remember the important rule – intoxicated first you need to call the ambulance, and only then the victim to drink strong sweet tea. May underestimate the severity of the poisoning amount of poison, hazard class to which it belongs. If the human condition is unstable or he lost consciousness, it is necessary to call the General poison control center for immediate advice. The doctor on duty asked to describe the symptoms and suggest ways of addressing them.
If the poisoning vapors or gases toxic compounds, the victim should quickly withdraw or move to fresh air. This should take care of their own safety and to wear a mask.
While the doctor is in the path, we need to give the man first aid:
- To lay the victim on his side, cover with a blanket, to soothe.
- To talk to someone, make sure that he was conscious.
- If vomiting, to clear the oral cavity. The undigested food should not get into the respiratory tract.
- Give the victim any adsorbent or the treatment.
Vomiting you can only call being in the full confidence that the poisoning is not caused by caustic alkalis or acids. Reverse reflux of toxic compounds in the esophagus will stop breathing.
The identification of toxic hazards only by a health worker. One should not hope for quick resolution of symptoms with activated charcoal. Timely introduction of antitoxin is able to save man from profound disability or death.