Copper poisoning: symptoms, first aid treatment
Copper (Cu) is a metal used in industrial and household conditions. Copper sulfate and Bordeaux liquid, created on the basis of copper, are used to control pests on garden and suburban areas. If it is wrong to use one of the substances that can occur in poisoning with copper. So you need to know what you can do in the event of excessive penetration of copper in the body.
Sources of intoxication
In order for the body to function properly, a day requires about 3 mg of copper. She gets with some products: buckwheat, potatoes, chicken livers. Food intoxication in this case is not going to happen. But there are other possible sources of poisoning, which are listed here:
- Copper sulfate has a greater scope. It is used in medicine during the electrolytic baths. Used copper salt and in the paint industry in the production process of paints. In addition, the drug is intended for treatment of wood, which prevents rotting. Use of such paints must be carefully because the poisoning can happen through inhalation.
- The substance is used in the home. Farmers use it to spray down crops at the expense of what on the surface die of infection and fungi. Therefore recommended to eat only food from your own garden to be sure of their sustainability. Buying vegetables and fruit before eating them thoroughly washedto copper salts were not included in the diet.
- At risk are the builders. In the process of working with copper surfaces it is necessary to observe safety precautions. If you inhale the dust generated when grinding, there will be signs of intoxication.
Some people still use copper utensils. In any case, you cannot eat from such plates liquid food. The particles of copper sulphate with a detergent can get into the soup, which will happen poisoning.
The effects of copper compounds on human
Copper compounds can enter the body in three ways: through the nose, mouth and skin. Depending on this, there is an irritation of the mucous membrane of the nose, skin rash or disturbed digestion. Once in the blood, a substance affects the red blood cells, destroying them. As a result, increases the level of hemoglobin, the skin becomes yellow. This phenomenon is called hemolysis.
In cases of poisoning by copper disrupted the function of internal organs. The liver is gradually destroyed, and if the impact of the stimulus does not decrease, it happens failure. Damaged nerve fibers, there are problems with the lungs and the kidneys.
Is a congenital disorder of copper metabolism in the body. It can cause serious diseases of the CNS, as well as some internal organs. Pathology is found in every twentieth student diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver. Generally, the disease is rare and it affects mostly men. The main factor which causes such a disease, are closely related to communication.
In the body there is a constant excess copper is not excreted and accumulates in the liver. This violated its function, leading to cirrhosis or fibrosis. In addition, the nervous system is affected. The disease progresses rapidly. If it is not treated, the child may die in the 5-14 years.
Signs and symptoms of poisoning with copper
The first symptoms of poisoning appear after 4 hours after exposure of copper in the body. While the symptoms largely depends on how the poison was in the blood. If he got together with food, the signs of intoxication are:
- severe pain in the stomach, burning in esophagus, diarrhea and vomiting, excessive salivation;
- a feeling of weakness in the body, dizziness;
- a sharp decrease in pressure;
- change the color of the skin;
- breathing problems.
If the poison has entered the body through inhalation, to the above-mentioned characteristics is added to the watery eyes and sneezing. Patient sharply increased body temperature, sometimes reaching 39 degrees. On the body appears allergic rash, sore muscles.
Poisoning through the skin occurs very rarely when used compresses based on copper. Although the signs of intoxication are observed only when excessive application of compress bandages. Added to symptoms of sweating, itching and redness of the skin.
Symptoms of acute poisoning
Acute poisoning is characterized by well-pronounced symptoms. Signs of disease are of two types:
- The primary, which appear almost immediately after the introduction of copper compounds into the body. The person has a metallic taste in RT, disturbed salivation, dry throat, red eyes.
- Secondary. This is a group of symptoms that manifest immediately, but after 4-48 hours after the poisoning. Their appearance suggests a more severe degree of intoxication. The patient increased body temperature, possible hallucinations. There is a weakness in the body, dizziness. In more advanced cases, the disrupted internal organs, which causes a number of diseases: renal failure, jaundice, increase in liver size,anemia.
Because the symptoms of poisoning by copper is similar to the usual manifestation of infection, these diseases are often confused. If there was contact with the compounds Cu, to properly administer first aid. After that you should immediately go to the doctor.
Symptoms of chronic poisoning
Poisoning with copper sulfate chronic – this is when intoxication occurs not immediately, but gradually, under the influence of small portions of substances. Therefore, people working with copper, must comply with all the precautions. It is very toxic and can cause lung disease, cirrhosis of the liver. Copper sulphate is sulfuric acid and copper.
A lethal dose is 8 to 30 g of the drug, depending on age and immunity of the person. Although the first signs of the disease manifested after the use of 0.5 g of substance.
Therapy begins immediately after the appearance of the first symptoms. So you need to carefully monitor the condition of the skin and eyes. The epidermis acquires a yellow colour, but on the surface of the cornea appear small blotches of red. Also, the patient is disturbed memory, speech, coordination of movements.
How to give first aid
First aid is performed immediately after the patient developed symptoms of intoxication as a result of contact with copper. All the performed actions also depend on the method by which the poison was in the body. If the substance was ingested along with food, you must perform several steps:
- Drink half a liter of solution of potassium permanganate and water (you need to have it slightly pink). This should induce vomiting. If not, you need to put two fingers in his mouth. Gastric lavage should be as long as vomiting does not leave the water without food particles.
- To take pills of coal: 10 kg of weight 1 tablet. They need to be crushed and dissolved in 250 ml of warm water. The resulting liquid drink for gastric lavage.
- Recommended to drink a laxative drug, due to which purified the digestive tract. We can not allow to happen the absorption of substances in the intestine, or it gets into the blood.
- During the day you should drink plenty of fluids except milk and oil mix. Because Cu is highly soluble in the lipid environment. Can't drink acidic drinks, as this further irritates the damaged mucosa.
- To remove the spasm and reduce pain, apply to the stomach filled with warm water the warmer.
When hit poison through the nose should also drink plenty of fluids. It is recommended to stimulate the production of urine, using a special diuretic substances. If the copper gets on the skin, the damaged surface is washed thoroughly with running water.
After first aid the patient goes to the hospital. Treatment for poisoning depends on the type of disease. In acute intoxication prescribers, which eliminates the poison from the body (e.g., carbomer, enterosgel etc.). Also carried out gastric lavage, appointed by diuretic drugs.
In contact with copper inside through the nose the patient is assigned bronchodilators and expectorant substances. In chronic intoxication, the patient should follow a special diet excluding foods with high Cu content.
The primary therapy involves a number of procedures, as listed below:
- Introduction to the patient an antidote (unithiol) injection intramuscularly. The course of treatment – 10 days, and then two weeks later it repeated again.
- Appointed injections antiemetic drugs (intravenous), for example, chlorpromazine.
- If there is hemolysis (yellowing of the skin), held the dropper based on sodium bicarbonate.
- To display all the toxins from the blood, the doctor prescribes hemodialysis.
- To enhance immunity to the patient prescribed vitamin complexes.
If poisoning the patient developed complications that led to the malfunction of some internal organs, the doctor prescribes the treatment of these pathologies. The therapy is performed exclusively in a medical setting under the guidance of a doctor.
How to avoid poisoning
No matter what the toxicity of copper compounds, it is necessary to observe a number of preventive measures. You need to know a few basic rules:
- You should at minimum use copper utensils. It can not cook with vinegar and citric acid. When cooking milk it to drain immediately after boiling, otherwise its composition will be copper particles.
- Can not breathe in the dust that appear when working with copper sulfate. Therefore, during the use of the substance should wear protective mask and gloves.
- Store the drug should be out of reach of children. The packaging shall be the words "copper sulphate" that will prevent accidental ingestion of the substance.
- If the permanent work is related to the processing of copper, you should wear a respirator, goggles and gloves. Treating copper surfaces can not be in areas where any food is stored. After work should be cleaned with a vacuum cleaner and wipe all surfaces with a damp cloth.
- Working with copper in the laboratory, it is impossible to prevent it from falling on the face.
So, despite the fact that copper is dangerous, its proper use is notharm to humans. The main thing – to observe all precautions. In case of appearance of symptoms of poisoning should immediately go to a specialist. Self-medication in this case will not help.