Vomiting in children: causes, symptoms, first aid and treatment
Vomiting in a child is often accompanied by additional anxiety symptoms in the form of increased temperature, symptoms of intoxication, skin rashes and other manifestations. It is important to know that nausea and vomiting in a child, even without external signs of anxiety – alarm, requiring immediate treatment to the doctor for diagnosis. If vomit feces are recorded systematically, not accompanied by strong deterioration of health of the child and gradually go away – this does not mean that we can talk about the absolute health of the baby. Vomiting in children between birth and school children is a fundamental difference: in the first case there takes place to be a physiological feature, the second vomiting can be a symptom of the beginning of functional disorders of the Central nervous system or internal organs. What should parents do if there is a sudden vomiting? Than can be caused by pathology?
Vomiting as a pathological condition
Vomiting – the act of spontaneous contractile muscle musculature of the gastric cavity with a reverse ejection of its contents through the mouth. In medicine, the use of the following identical terms: altamese, anabolia, Lannemezan, gastralia, hematemesis, heremes, hyperemia, acute James. The condition can occur as a result of severe intoxication with various agents or by pathological changes the function of some organs, systems.
The gag reflex is considered a frequent occurrence in children of early and preschool age, when there is a final formation of the immune system, digestive system, determination of diet and other factors. An important aspect is the maturity of the child.
It is known that in different periods of life – from newborns to school age, the child passes certain stages of development associated with a specific psychological stress (knowledge of the world, communication with peers, transition into the new kindergarten, parental divorce, etc.). The strong emotional load, regardless of its shade, the child may react by vomiting. If there was a single vomiting under certain circumstances, parents need to observe the child's condition. In case of deterioration of General condition, with frequent episodes of bowel movement, with the accession of fever, diarrhea and other symptoms should seek medical help.
Mechanisms of development
The act of vomiting there is a rapid emptying of the gastric cavity through the mouth. The vomiting center is localized in the medulla oblongata, is excited by the slightest of receipts of pulses from the cavity of the stomach, kidney structures of the liver, the vestibular apparatus, the uterus, the appendages, in case of any irritation of the nerve centers. For example, many people are experiencing severe retching feeling of nasty smells. Often, the excitation of the emetic center may occur under the influence of medication, vitamins, toxic drugs. Before the actual act of vomiting in man digs nausea, breathing becomes rapid, superficial, increased salivation. The anatomical mechanism of the vomiting is:
- the omission of the diaphragm:
- the closure of the glottis (to exclude the ingress of stomach contents into the respiratory system);
- spasm of the lower section of the gastric cavity;
- relaxation of the upper part of the stomach.
Because of the rapid contractile movements of the muscles of the peritoneum the entire contents of the stomach are thrown out through the mouth, producing the act of vomiting. Vomiting helps a person to get rid of dangerous substances, to accelerate the excretion of toxic compounds to prevent poisoning. Retching inherent nature and performs a protective function for the whole organism.
Features of emergence
Causes of vomiting in infants can be caused by a number of precipitating factors. Vomiting in children of different ages manifests itself multifaceted. So, parents of newborns are much calmer react to the next discharge after the sucking of breast milk than parents of a child who goes to nursery or school.
The period of formation of the digestive process may be determined individually for each child, but clinicians tend to believe that the appearance of vomiting always mean any disorder in the body of the child of various origins.
Often such States in children are transient and only for serious diseases of internal organs can accompany any exacerbation of pathologies.
Vomiting in newborns
Many people confuse vomiting with regurgitation in newborns. In principle, major differences in both States is not due to the structure of the digestive tract in infants. The incoming liquid (breast milk, formula or water) easily pass to the stomach and tends to go back not fixing muscular sphincters. With the age of the child of the regurgitation becomes smaller from the formation of the muscles of the intestine and of the digestive tract. That is why many doctors recommend to hold the baby upright after feeding to expel extra air, and nutritious milk remained in the stomach. Healthy children vomiting happens really fast, the episodes of vomiting are not fixed. Among the main causes of vomiting in the infant include:
- substandard products;
- severe motion sickness when attempting to putto sleep;
- improper nutrition of the nursing mother;
- overheating (usually, over-wrap);
- early complementary feeding;
- a fat mixture (for example, based on goat milk):
- violation of diet;
- head injury (for example, if you drop the baby off the couch, changing tables);
- increased intracranial pressure;
- increase in blood pressure (eg, severe renal or hepatic failure);
- vomiting during crying (long, as a result of isahaya oral mucosa);
- after water in an excess amount.
Often, vomiting in a newborn is the symptoms of any disease. At birth the baby is examined carefully and observe during the year, once a month. Pediatricians asking parents to take responsibility for such phenomena as vomiting, as in 80% of cases, such episodes confirm the presence of certain diseases.
Causes of vomiting in children older than one year
Uncertain if infants can perceive various negative effects, older children are much brighter react to unpleasant feelings, showing concern, fear, anxiety. The main causes of vomiting in children after one year include:
- strong intoxication of any nature;
- food poisoning during a meal (fruits, milk products, meat, fish);
- a concussion;
- neuropsychiatric condition;
- overfeeding, not corresponding to age of the table;
- acute inflammatory condition;
- different intestinal infections.
Child years or older understands that his body is something goes wrong. Some babies can show me where it hurts and that bothers. At this point, the child needs the attention of parents, their care and control of the General condition of the body.
Diseases of the digestive tract
With the defeat of organs of the abdominal space, vomiting in the second or third day is the main symptom of diseases of any nature. Infectious or bacterial lesions affect the functionality of the digestive tract in the first place, as often are the primary localization of the virus or parasite. The main causes of vomiting in children with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract include:
- salmonellosis, acute dysentery, dysbacteriosis;
- acute abdomen;
- inguinal-scrotal or umbilical hernia;
- stomach flu;
- gastritis or enterocolitis;
Often vomiting of gastrointestinal origin is diagnosed in early childhood, when the only method of understanding the world is the mouth. This vomiting with the smell of yeast is evidence of intestinal infections. The students of Junior classes also are not able to excessive care in relation to hand hygiene. Besides, among the children in the class may simply be a carrier of a contagious disease. Children care little about the hygiene of their hands, and parents or caregivers are not always able to keep track of the time.
Pathology of the skull and brain
Vomiting in traumatic brain disease is a worrying signal that often indicates serious damage to the brain and its cortex. Among the main reasons can be identified:
- frequent headaches;
- concussion (e.g., fall, blow);
- meningeal infections;
- the Bruns syndrome;
- head trauma as the result of the generative process;
- syndrome of the posterior cranial fossa;
- increased intracranial pressure.
The danger of the clinical picture lies in the intractability of vomiting, and overall severity of the patient. Sometimes these patients are in a forced situation, so the children required constant care and medication quick relief vomiting stool.
Vomiting may accompanied by high temperature, but in some cases it causes hyperthermia and vomiting. If vomiting occurs in the morning, the doctors suspected an infectious disease, sepsis, meningeal pathology, brain tumors, appendicitis. Parents should determine the child's character vomiting – when it occurs, which contributes to the condition. Some diseases that cause this condition include:
- severe allergic reactions;
- suppurative diseases:
- acute appendicitis;
- foreign body in the stomach cavity;
- metabolic disorders (electrolyte disorders);
- bad cough in diseases of the respiratory tract;
- hepatitis with no evidence of jaundice;
- chronic renal failure (including drug substitution therapy);
- endocrine diseases;
- acute heart failure (e.g., secondary cardiomyopathy in chronic renal failure);
- epileptic disorders;
- purulent or catarrhal otitis.
For example, a child of 10 years can pluck if swallowed water in the pool (many children feel sick after the pool from chloride components in the water when swimming on a full stomach). No reason to pull the child set. If the child is small and can't talk about their feelings, it is better to trust professionals with extensive practical experience. Clinicians argue that the vomiting is a reaction to the aggression (even potential) of the external or internal negative factors.
The impact of externalfactors can be attributed to specific, as the sensitivity of the vomiting center each patient is individual. Someone from short trips by car can experience the nausea and someone will not feel rolling motions. Of the major specific reasons for the possible vomiting is isolated:
- motion sickness in any form of transport;
- stressful situation;
- fear and strong emotion before the event;
- heat stroke;
- fright during sleep;
- reaction to teething.
It is important to understand that even one-off episodes of vomiting with no apparent deterioration of child's health – a serious signal for a thorough examination of the body. Sometimes this condition is the first symptom of the disease, which can still be cured in the early stages of development.
Vomiting can occur for a number of reasons in children at any age. When burdened with a clinical history of a child retching testify to the aggravation of certain chronic diseases. The character of vomiting of feces depends on the presence of concomitant disease, which is episodic starting mechanism to the gag urge.
Often recorded in the detection of serous, acute tuberculous meningitis. If differential diagnosis allows for rapid detection of meningeal tuberculosis in an acute form, in the serous form, the symptoms are often blurred, evolving much more slowly. Often vomiting is the first bell in the development of pathological States in children.
Develops in the course of viral hepatitis bisultanova type. Hepatitis accompanied by meningeal or encephalitic signs. In clinical practice, vomiting disease of the liver structures were interconnected with a secondary kidney disease.
Develops in acute or chronic renal failure and inflammatory diseases of the kidney and urinary tract (pyelonephritis, acute nephritis, severe cystitis, etc.). On the background of chronic renal failure is gradual intoxication. If the patient is at the pre-dialysis stage, vomiting can signal an exacerbation of the disease. Another symptom of vomiting in CKD are high blood pressure and hypertensive crises. Sharp jumps in blood pressure in children with chronic renal failure are secondary, closely associated with the possible defeat of the cardiovascular system.
Occurs on the background of acute heart failure, in various pathologies of the cardiac departments of various origins. So, retching can occur with myocarditis (inflammation of the myocardium), cardiomyopathy of any etiology, with a decrease in myocardial contractility. Cardiac vomiting is accompanied by severe child anxiety, sometimes panic and fear, lack of appetite, pale and pasty skin, dryness of mucous membranes. In attacks of acute heart failure there is involuntary bowel movements. Often cardiac vomiting requires emergency resuscitation measures that can save a child's life.
Bloody vomiting is a consequence of nasal bleeding. This is due to the copious ingestion of blood. Sometimes may be a symptom of ulcerative lesions of the stomach. If vomiting with admixture of blood occurs in the morning, at night or right after Breakfast, then suggest varicose veins of the esophagus.
Psychogenic factors and vomiting in children – a separate section of clinical medicine and Pediatrics. The relationship is a strong emotional state of any shade (joy, fear, danger, interest, anger, strong emotion) is determined by the degree of sensitivity of the vomiting centre and the nerve endings in the gastric cavity. Psychologists and psychiatrists refer certain categories of vomiting, psychotic disorders child. It usually occurs in children aged 9-10 years, starting when demonstration trigiani, children begin to belch out of habit. Usually psychogenic vomiting is not accompanied by symptoms of intoxication or poisoning happens as a causeless phenomenon in various bacterial or parasitic pathogens.
The main manifestations can be a strong emotional excitement, sweating palms, cooling of the extremities. Psychologists and paediatricians say the likelihood of vomiting conspicuous to attract the attention of adults to their personality. Vomiting psychogenic can occur in young children and infants as a result of forced feeding by their parents. Gag reflex such kind of relate to autonomic disorders, require supervision by neurologists and psychiatrists. Any episode must be controlled, to give to drink fluids and to provide emotional calmness.
Condition called acetoneiso crisis, when the blood accumulates high content of acetone or acetoacetic acid. Usually a syndrome marked by serious pathologies of the kidneys, with other lesions of the internal organs. The condition is accompanied by severe agitation, pain. Organic liquid (urine, vomit, feces) smells like acetone, it is possible the child is vomitingthe smell of rotten eggs, the smell of fermentation. These signs – a serious reason contact. After vomiting with a smell of acetone it is necessary to give more liquids to eliminate foods up to 8 hours. As a drink suitable alkaline mineral water, decoction of dried fruits. When quitting drinking you need to inject a special medicine dropper or syringe without the needle. The rate of drinking at acetoneiso crisis – about 100 ml per kg of body weight of the child.
Meet circular ketonemia, diabetic and abdominal vomiting. Each has its own characteristics. The most frequently diagnosed it acetonemia vomiting, seizures, which usually alternate with satisfactory condition of the little patient. Episodes of retching in children and are classified by stages of emergence:
- primary (or idiopathic) can be from incorrect diet: hungry a long pause, plenty of fatty foods);
- secondary, appearing on the background of pathologies of organs and systems.
Diagnosis and treatment of vomiting stool – the lot of physicians. Parents need to react to changes in the condition of the child, to record each episode, to explore the consistency and to determine the visual composition of vomit. So the doctor will save time in diagnosis and recovery of the child is greatly accelerated. In some cases, the actions of the parents determines the child's life.
Vomiting in toddler occurring without concurrent symptoms is a rare clinical situation. Usually vomiting is accompanied by inhibition well-being, decreased activity, fever, diarrhea, redness of the skin and excitation. Exactly comorbidities precisely to get closer to the source of the gag reflex, to identify the possible cause before laboratory and instrumental diagnostics.
Vomiting without fever
Astemperature vomiting in children at any age, it doesn't matter in 4 years, 7 years, 8 years or 10 years, is not considered a separate disease. Sometimes there is severe nausea without vomiting. It is also considered a episode worthy of the attention of physicians. Therapy aimed at eliminating only the vomit, sooner or later will lead to the resumption state. Possible diseases causing vomiting without hyperthermic manifestations, include:
- diseases of the epigastrium (severe diarrhea, pain, belching);
- pronounced metabolic disorders (no appetite, lethargy);
- intoxication (food, drugs, persistent the pathology of internal organs):
- diseases of Central nervous system (restlessness, vomiting in the morning, loss of appetite, lack of control, violation of psychosomatics);
- a head injury of any nature.
Many parents relax when the episodes of vomiting not accompanied by temperature, appear for no reason. It seems that the child is not in danger. But especially careful to understand that such an attack is not a normal reaction of the body against the background of absolute health of the baby. If in any doubt about diseases vomiting you must consult a doctor.
Vomiting at temperatures
Temperature is accompanied by the course of the inflammatory process, infectious lesions of the body. Vomiting in temperature requires immediate treatment to the doctor due to high risk of developing complications (severe intoxication, generalized sepsis). Usually the treatment of this pathology performed in a hospital. The simultaneous increase in temperature and the appearance of vomiting may be associated with intestinal infections. If the temperature with the fever first began, and vomiting after 1-2 days, it is this condition and can cause the allocation of vomit. If vomiting occurs long before a high temperature, for example, the day before the event, it could be a symptom of a common cold, and signs of incipient meningitis.
Character of vomit
Parents should pay attention to the composition of vomit. For example, vomiting in babies fresh breast ground immediately after a feeding without degradation involves only the observation of the baby during the day. If nothing critical happens, as usual, the episodes are no longer duplicated, then it is possible to tell the pediatrician on a routine inspection of the child.
Such situations may occur with excess ingestion of air while sucking the breast or bottle, the sudden tossing of the baby immediately after eating, excessive activity of parents in the swaddling immediately after a meal , etc. If the condition of the child after vomiting is worse, the episodes are repeated again and again, it's a reason to call the emergency assistance and deal with some peculiarities of the vomiting, which is accompanied by unpleasant sensations:
- Abdominal tenderness, together with indomitable vomiting – the symptoms of food poisoning.
- The admixture of bile in the vomit, the child – a sign of cholecystitis, hepatitis, infections of the intestine, gallstone disease.
- Morning vomiting with headaches is an important signal when a concussion or head injury.
- Vomiting with mucous tissue fragments in infants may go unnoticed, while older children this picture describes food poisoning.
- Vomiting watery consistency – vomiting of water, the child may receive prolonged hunger, disorders diet whencolds.
- Detachable foam – a dangerous symptom, which is diagnosed meningitis, acute heart failure, heart attack, cancer, hepatitis, diabetes, acute intestinal infection. This vomiting requires immediate emergency care.
- Gushing vomiting in infants is a sign of overfeeding and activity after eating and signal the development of dangerous pathologies. Vomiting fountain in the child may signal the strongest intoxication.
Each case requires an individual approach. In addition to the nature of the vomiting, you need to pay attention to its color.
Shade of vomit
The color and the color of vomit can indicate a location of damage, and on any symptom of the particular disease. Color vomiting in children at any age can be as follows:
- Yellowish color is a symptom of acute appendicitis, intestinal infections, food poisoning, medications.
- Reddish inclusions – internal bleeding, damage to the walls of the esophagus, trauma to the stomach cavity.
- A greenish tint – a stressful situation, a huge number of greens in the diet.
- Black or gray – use on the eve of the activated carbon held chemotherapy.
Single episodes of vomiting in a child without deterioration on the background of a healthy body should not cause serious concern. Typically, this reaction to new foods in the diet, this vomiting does not affect the emotional and mental state of the child's activity. Under any related oppressive conditions should seek help from a specialist. Vomiting is only a symptom, and the cause of disease can only be detected as a result of professional examination.
Self-treatment vomiting often leads to complications. With no medical training and no practical skills it is impossible for the eye to determine the true causes of vomiting in children.
Vomiting even minor depression status is an alarming signal that requires complex diagnostics and treatment. Timely treatment and correct the actions of the parents – the key to maintaining the health of the child.
When a minor multiplicity vomit feces (about 3) without signs of dehydration, temperature, in children of about 2 years is enough to provide him rest, drink fresh water or decoction of dried fruit, check the condition for about a day. If no changes are forthcoming, you can leave this episode in the past.
In many cases, vomiting is a protective reaction of the body, so to stop the vomiting makes no sense.
If he started more frequent retching and General deterioration, you should seek help for the relevant treatment:
- Poisoning by food (lavage of the gastrointestinal tract, restoring or carrying out detoxication therapy).
- Infectious diseases (detoxification, antibiotics).
- Acute conditions when the infringement of a hernia, acute appendicitis is a surgical operation.
- A concussion or head injury – rest, stay in bed, prevention of edema of the brain.
- Vomiting at mental disorders – adequate psychotherapy, treatment of neuropsychiatric focus.
When burdened with a clinical history of the child may require additional consultation with specialists in a particular therapeutic profile. Before waiting for an ambulance the baby need to give water (through a syringe, spoon) in order to avoid severe dehydration, which is a danger to life, to try to gather for hospitalization with the child to the relevant hospital Department.
Treatment of vomiting of the popular methods is unacceptable as it is impossible to determine at home the root cause of vomiting stool. Prevention of vomiting in children of any age is reduced to timely treatment provoking diseases, regular checkups at the pediatrician and specialists.
It is important to understand that vomiting in many cases, the first symptom of any disorders of the body and sometimes can even save lives, if the time to respond to such signals in the human body. A small child reacts to any exposure to the outside world, and the task of parents – to make this meeting a softer light.