What to do in cases of poisoning in infants: symptoms, treatment
Poisoning in infants is quite common. Despite the fact that the kids are surrounded by high attention, care and care, this does not always guarantee complete safety to health. Poisoning in infants can happen in the first days after birth.
The causes of poisoning in infants
The main mechanism of poisoning by household, as the kids do not attend preschool.
Contact with toxins internally (orally)
The main food of children of this age is breast milk. Therefore, the causes of food poisoning the following:
- spoiled give expressed breast milk;
- poor quality or inappropriate to the age of the lure;
- violation of sanitary-hygienic norms in the handling of bottles and teats.
If a woman has enough milk, pediatricians strongly recommend not to introduce solid foods until 6 months. This approach will prevent the risk of food poisoning in a child for the first six months of life, when there is an active adjustment and adaptation of the digestive system.
The penetration of infection into the body
Pathogenic microorganisms can enter the body of the baby through breastfeeding, if a woman does not observe rules of personal hygiene. Milk is a perfect breeding ground for bacteria. Little drop of milk after a few hours to grow colonies of microbes. If the woman after feeding does not hold the hygienic treatment of breast, it can be a source of infectious disease baby.
The second cause of foodborne diseases – a violation of the standards of thermal processing of food products during cooking of foods. Also improper storage of food, non-observance of temperature regime contribute to the intoxication.
Acute food poisoning in infants caused with specific pathogens: Salmonella, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus.
The main reason – the fumes are toxic and toxic substances. This building materials and household products.
- gasoline, kerosene;
- concentrated acids and alkali;
- agricultural chemistry.
The risk of such poisoning occurs when the child begins to crawl around the house and explore the world. Carelessness of parents could lead to tragic consequences, like the poisoning in infants the hardest. Toxins instantly into the blood through the lungs, affect the immature Central nervous system. Poisoning of the brain causing coma and death.
This group should also be attributed to poisoning by household gas.
This poisoning can happen if a nursing mother is taking drugs for medicinal purposes. Getting into the breast milk, medicines have a significant impact not only on the female body, but also on the children's. The degree of negative impact depends on the following factors:
- chemical and physical properties of the substance;
- the amount of daily doses;
- the General condition of women;
- genetic features of infants.
The rate of development of poisoning in children first year of life due to:
- rapid absorbability in the digestive tract;
- a high concentration of drug in plasma (due to the fact that the drug is not fully associated with the blood protein);
- the slow process of disintegration and withdrawal of chemicals from the body.
Special attention from the doctor is required by the fact in history of woman abuse narcotics, psychotropic substances, barbiturates, and alcohol. A newborn may be poisoned with nicotine smoke.
Signs of poisoning in infants
The child cannot say that he feels nausea, heartburn, may not specify, whether aching stomach or head. The main subjective symptoms is continuous crying, complete refusal of food, restless sleep, or the lack of physical lethargy. These are the signs by which the mother must suspect that with a child something happened.
If any of the poisoning is diagnosed based on objective symptoms.
Food poisoning is accompanied by disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Children have bloating, flatulence, diarrhea. The temperature slightly increased to 37.5 °C, light fever. Slight vomiting. Externally, the child is restless, refuses to take the breast. At the initial stage observed symptoms of the flu.
Food poisoning, regardless of the pathogen, manifested the same type. The disease occurs suddenly, and exhibits such signs of development:
- Intoxication – high fever (39 - 41 °C),chills, severe weakness, the child is tired, pale skin, slow heartbeat, low blood pressure.
- Gastroenteritis – at the same time repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea (every hour), sharp pain instomach.
- Dehydration – a decrease in daily diuresis, anuria.
- From the nervous system – convulsions, collapse.
From infants increases the risk of development of infectious-toxic shock, acute cardiovascular failure, blood clots in the ligaments of the peritoneum, sepsis.
Symptoms of poisoning vapors or gases manifested in the form of serious disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems:
- abrupt change in physical activity, lethargy, apathy;
- redness of skin, bluish tint of the skin;
- excessive sweating;
- frequent palpitations and heart rate (newborns up to 200 beats per minute);
- surface breathing;
- abnormal heart rhythm;
- a weak reaction of pupils to light stimulus;
- blurred vision;
- convulsions, limb paresis (partial paralysis);
- collapse, loss of consciousness.
All of these symptoms in infants is progressing at lightning speed. Poisoning gases and toxic fumes – a common cause of sudden death of infants.
Symptoms of drug poisoning appear gradually, with the development and decline of intoxication.
- 1st – hidden, the time interval from the ingress of drugs into the body before the first symptoms appear (depends on the chemical composition and dose of the drug);
- 2nd- toxicogenic, pronounced symptoms before their excretion from the body;
- 3rd – somatogenic, the appearance of complications morphological or functional changes of internal organs, develop specific syndromes (collection of symptoms);
- 4th – restoration, can last several years, there remain residual effects of lesions of the nervous, endocrine, immune systems.
Signs of drug poisoning varied and depend on the group of drugs. But many of the symptoms are the same as in other poisonings. Therefore, they will not go unnoticed.
Treatment of poisoning
Poisoning in infants treated exclusively in the hospital environment, as the risk of death is very high.
In non-infectious poisoning, the child is being treated in the children's Department of therapeutic profile, where important parts of treatment is the adjustment of power, proper selection of foods.
In severe disease caused by bacteria kid hospitalitynet to the hospital. It is placed in a separate unit and intensive therapy: to combat dehydration by intravenous infusion of rehydration solutions, parenteral nutrition (glucose), antibiotics against bacterial infection.
When gassing the baby is placed in intensive care, where, in addition to primary treatment, is provided by mechanical ventilation and round the clock monitoring of vital body functions – heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, pulse.
Treatment of drug poisoning carried out in the children toxicology Department. The main directions in the treatment – neutralization of chemicals, hormones and specific serum.
First aid infants
To provide babies help themselves at home difficult. At this age, is prohibited and is not always possible to induce vomiting, give activated charcoal.
The algorithm of actions of the mother in cases of poisoning babies:
- Calling an ambulance.
- Ensure the child fresh air. Open wide open window in the winter window.
- If the child has the urge to vomit, place him on his side.
- When the chills cover with a warm blanket or quilt.
- In cases of poisoning by household gas child out of the room.
If the child is conscious, ensure to drink plenty of water. Better if it is saline. The powder for cooking is sold in all pharmacies, it is affordable and should be in every home medicine Cabinet.
Poisoning infant is a dangerous condition that poses a direct threat to the life of the baby. Therefore, it is important to prevent. To do this, parents are required to observe basic rules of conduct, safety and sanitation standards.