Vomiting and diarrhea in a child without fever: how to treat, causes
Vomiting and diarrhea in a child without fever is a disturbing symptom for many caring parents. Children's vomiting is always a danger for a small body. Dangerous the state is, after all, is a defense mechanism against the negative impact of pathogenic factors, the real danger are the complications of vomiting, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia and so on. It is very important to understand the root cause of pathologic vomiting, what are the accompanying factors precede the condition. Usually when uncontrollable vomiting or diarrhea without hyperthermia initially suggested by the development of intestinal infection or pathology of different organs or systems. Diagnostic procedures allow to identify potential violations of the health of the child and to start appropriate treatment.
Vomiting in a child: critical issues
Physiologically vomiting and diarrhea without fever is a protective reflex act, which aimed at the expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth or nasal passages regardless of the desires of man. Can occur both in adults and in children 2 years to 4 years. Muscular contractions of the stomach in children occur in different circumstances, which is dependent on the possible comorbidity. Vomiting occurs as a result of the influence of nerve impulses to the center in the cerebral cortex. Vomiting may develop concurrent stool softener, which increases the risk of dehydration in frequently recurring episodes. There are two main forms of vomiting with diarrhea:
- the acute form;
- a chronic condition.
The acute form involves sharply developed, the primary pathogenic process results in a certain disease. It should be noted that while a single episode of vomiting along with a stool softener without deterioration of General well-being it is enough to observe the condition of the child. If the kid is active and behaves as always, then you can do the usual control. If necessary, you can inform the pediatrician about some concerns.
A chronic condition implies systematically repeated episodes of vomiting or diarrhea without hyperthermia, for no apparent reason, due to the development of any disease of internal organs. Vomiting in a child without fever, but diarrhea can be a sign of complications.
In the acute form of a disease, which is accompanied by retching or diarrhea without apparent complications, the chronic pathological process occurs quickly enough.
Parents should pay attention to the consistency of the feces, vomit, possible impurities and other foreign components. With increasing alarming symptoms should immediately consult a doctor.
The causes of disease may be different. When burdened with a clinical history of the child the appearance of vomiting or liquefied stool may be a signal to the aggravation of any chronic disease. With the appearance of unpleasant symptoms on the background of absolute health, it is important to conduct a thorough diagnosis, so as not to miss the development of disease.
Of food poisoning, indigestion
Classic symptoms of food poisoning in children, the appearance of vomiting and diarrhea with pyrexia, and without it. Even with a slight poisoning the child's body may react to intoxication and manifest itself in the form of a strong one-time vomiting. This reaction could happen in the banal overeating or taking certain medications.
Diseases associated with metabolism, are often autoimmune in nature. Diarrhea and vomiting in children with endocrinological diseases is a frequent situation. Most of the endocrinologists with vomiting or diarrhea identify diabetes.
Diagnosis is the delivery of the detailed analysis of blood, including enzymes, ultrasound of organs of the peritoneum and epigastric pain.
Sometimes violations can be caused by intolerance to cow's or goat's milk, glucose, fruit acids and other products. Treatment strategy here is to change the diet.
Neuralgia and congenital diseases
Clinicians assign great importance to vomiting or loose stools with various neurological disorders. In the practice of medicine there is such a thing as brain vomit. Often such violations are formed even when carrying a child, during its long passage through the birth canal and asphyxia. Congenital cerebral abnormalities various intensities can provoke gushing vomiting, leakage of milk from the esophagus.
Gushing stool can be a symptom of concussion, traumatic brain injury of various origins, tumors of the brain tissue. Diarrhea and vomiting in a child without fever can be inflammation of the brain tissue. Besides vomiting, patients can get dizziness, nausea. Vomit feces occur as the primary symptoms of meningitis, encephalitis, epileptic conditions and are accompanied by fever.
Intestinal obstruction, intussusception
Etiological factors of intestinal obstruction can be either acquired or congenital. The condition is especially common in children in the neonatal period to 2 years. Pathology due to the inability of one area of the intestine to contract andto push the stool to the ring of the sphincter in the rectum. Intestinal obstruction causes not only vomiting stool, but stool softener, pale skin, sweating, malaise. The composition includes diarrhea mucus blood-tinged blotches.
Foreign object enters the esophagus through the mouth. The situation is typical for children of early age, when the knowledge of the world occurs through biting, obsasyvanie. The character of the vomiting, its intensity or manifestation of the diarrhea depends on what Department gets a foreign body. The impressive size of the pathology can be accompanied by shortness of breath.
Appendicitis occurs predominantly in older children and adolescents. Pain in the right side, the symptoms of intoxication, uncontrollable vomiting and frequent bowel movements can indicate inflammation of the Appendix. In this state the temperature can not rise.
Inflammation of the organs of the epigastrium
Cholecystitis, gastritis, ulcerative lesions of the mucosa, pancreatitis and other diseases accompanied by uncontrollable vomiting. The inflammatory process seldom takes place without temperature. The absence of hyperthermia may be related to the first signs of a severe condition. The composition of the components includes vomiting mucous, bile.
Pyloric stenosis – malformation of the opening between stomach and duodenum. Food lingers in the lower part of the stomach, and under a certain pressure is pushed out. The first symptoms are detected already with the birth of a child. Vomiting fountain, liquid bowel movements, weight loss is the first symptoms of the disease.
Between the stomach and the duodenum passes the valve (in the terminology of porter). The hormone gastrin keeps the muscular structure of the pylorus in good shape for about 4 months. Permanent spasserovannye provokes the passage of food from the digestive cavity to the intestine. Vomiting due to spasm of the pylorus is quite rare, not gushing. Condition in newborns you can stop in the appointment of antireflux formulas. Treatment can begin in 2 years or 3 years, when the child is ready for surgery.
Pathology characterized by the violation of the motor function of the esophagus. Resistant cardiospasm threat of a possible delay in development due to lack of nutrients. The condition can be removed by medication and by surgery.
Acetonemia intoxication causes severe vomiting, General malaise, weakness. The distinctive symptom acetoneiso condition – sharp rapid vomiting with repeated episodes. Acetone found in the urine, blood, smell his breath. Common in chronic diseases of the kidneys, liver, when the child's body regularly is on the background of light poisoning metabolic products.
Nervous breakdown can cause severe vomiting, diarrhea. This pathology is called functional. Found in children of different age may occur on a background emotional overload, strong impressions, feelings, turmoil. A tinge of emotion may be different. Often the causes of such vomiting is diagnosed in children 8 years or 9 years.
If the child has vomiting and diarrhea without hyperthermia, parents should not leave it unattended. Many pathological conditions develop slowly, intoxication in functional disorders is growing sporadically, so often ignored by doctors. Vomiting may be the first symptom of the beginning changes.
Specific causes of disorders
Do not have vomiting and diarrhea may indicate the development of devastating conditions of organs or body systems. Often these two characteristic symptom may indicate a common physiological reaction to a variety of factors:
- regurgitation newborn;
- incomplete formation of the digestive tract;
- large volumes of food;
- incorrect posture of the child during feeding;
- invalid capture the nipple;
- strong experiences.
If the child has vomiting and diarrhea without fever, it is necessary to determine the nature of the condition. Single episodes of vomiting or diarrhea occur with the introduction of feeding the child. Psychological discomfort, torque fear, fear can cause bowel movements vomiting and diarrhea. In children of different age diarrhea can cause changes in climatic zones, cities, a drastic change of weather. Adaptation period for many children and adults accompanied by a "restructuring" of the body to the new food, climate, and other circumstances. Parents, it is important to ensure the child rest for a few days, to eliminate aggressive products, abundant food, physical activity.
Repeated emptying of the stomach or intestines dangerous not only dehydration, but also other possible deviations in the normal health of the child. The main effects profuse vomiting stool or diarrhea include the following States:
- Dehydration. Rapid loss of fluid from the connective tissue leads to disorders in water-salt balance, electrolyte disorders (reduction of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium) that willlead to acute organ failure. Severe stage of dehydration, accompanied by convulsions, loss of consciousness (sometimes only confusion). The condition is very dangerous for newborns, as their body is not able to control biological processes with an aggressive response. Vomiting and diarrhea without fever – a dangerous condition for newborns.
- Weight reduction. In various poisoning, followed by vomiting, diarrhea is a strong decrease in the usual weight. The condition can turn into a disaster if the newborn baby is underweight, premature, has a chronic autoimmune disease in clinical history. Critical loss of body weight in these children may be rapid, rampant. Treatment requires fluid therapy, resuscitation.
- The risk of bleeding. Lose mucosal tissues of the gastric cavity by repeated urgency to emptying provokes ruptures of capillaries and blood vessels, causing bleeding of varying intensity. If adult children the walls of the stomach sufficiently strong, the newborns bleeding may not occur quickly enough. The main symptom is bleeding, appearance of blood in the vomit.
- The risk of suffocation. The potential risk of suffocation is very dangerous for children in the neonatal period, and at any age in an unconscious state. During bouts of vomiting, parents should control the whole process, especially if the baby is in a horizontal position. For safer discharge of vomit, the child should be put on the side or simply rotate the head to one side.
- Aspiration pneumonia. The process carries serious consequences, when the gastric juice penetrates into the pulmonary structure. Vomit in the lungs requires the immediate carrying out of antibacterial treatment, aspiration of mucous components of light. In severe cases can develop pulmonary edema, and the child requires a connection to the ventilator.
Any parents immediately distinguish pathogenic situation or a life-threatening condition. In some cases, doubt or procrastination could cost a child's life, so before you treat yourself, you must assess the General condition of the child. This applies especially to parents, if chronic diseases of various organs or systems known in advance.
With the increasing the vomiting or a single episode, it is important to provide the child with peace of mind, excessive drinking, position reclining. A newborn child need to take the hand, giving it a vertical position. What to do if child vomits? The main home measures at the moment waiting for the ambulance include:
- drink saline (baby must be given water in small portions from a syringe);
- fever with a possible temperature rise;
- sorbents, if there is suspected food poisoning.
Before the arrival of an ambulance, you need to wrap the baby, but to provide fresh air in the room. If the situation occurred on the street in hot weather, you need to get the baby in a cool room. Self medication may cause of the tragedy, as some conditions can be eliminated only by surgery.
Ambulance is necessary when the episodes of vomiting stool do not stop, with diarrhea, fainting, the occurrence of hyperthermia, fever, lethargy, hypersomnia.
Primary diagnosis of pathological disorders of the stomach or of the chair is to study the clinical history of the patient. In the presence of chronic diseases of the organs or the system carry out additional consultation of specialists in the field (endocrinologists, cardiologists, hearing healthcare, gastroenterologists). Many situations require emergency surgical intervention, especially in acute abdominal pain, infusion therapy, various resuscitation or replacement therapy.
At home to cure or relieve the child's condition will fail, especially if you don't have certain drugs. The only correct solution is to call an ambulance and also informed the GP of vomiting without altering the overall well-being. Only a doctor can adequately assess your child's condition by assigning the correct treatment of a pathological condition.