Salmonellosis in children: symptoms, signs and treatment
The child's body most prone to various infections and negative factors. This is due to the immune system, which has low resistance and protection. Often occurs in children is a nasty infectious disease such as salmonellosis. This is not surprising. Children often play in the street, pick up homeless animals, pull in your mouth dirty toy, all this leads to various infectious infections, including salmonellosis. But if time does not start treating this disease, may have serious consequences. So you need to know the main features of salmonellosis in children, to help quickly determine the presence of this disease and to carry out timely treatment.
What is salmonellosis
Salmonellosis in children is one of the most severe and common intestinal infectionsin which dehydration occurs and the weakening of the whole organism. The main source of infection are the bacteria Salmonella.
Often appears salmonellosis in children up to one year. Children at this age are 5-6 times more susceptible to this disease. Major outbreaks occur in summer and autumn, when the street is hot.
The factors of appearance and ways of infection
Salmonellosis can develop not only in the human body, but the disease is common in Pets. There are about 700 species of pathogens that can cause this disease in humans. These bacteria are quite resistant to the environment, but they can die at elevated temperatures. Active development of bacteria occurs in eggs, meat and dairy products in the oil. Harmful substances released by the bacteria have a destructive effect on the intestinal mucosa and increase the secretion of fluids and salts.
How is salmonellosis? What are the ways of infection of this infections are there? To get a newborn and an older child from domestic animals, in rare circumstances the infection can occur from adults.
The main sources of contamination:
- The food type. The pathogen penetrates into the gastrointestinal tract of the child during eating contaminated food. This usually occurs due to the low heat treatment of food. Also, contamination can occur during use of not purified water.
- Contact-household. Typically, such a route of infection occurs in infants. Infection can occur through unclean hands of medical staff or parents through toys, pacifiers, various products, and through inhalation of dust particles.
- Transplacental. This type of infection involves the infection of pregnant or lactating women, and as a result, the unborn child. Pathogens can enter the body of the fetus in utero or through mother's breast milk.
The greatest sensitivity to salmonellosis in children aged from 3 months to 2-3 years. The primary localization of the pathogen is in the area of the rectum. During your breeding bacteria enter the bloodstream and lymphatic system.
Common symptoms when salmonellosis
Salmonellosis in a child may manifest a group of infections have different signs and the severity of. All depends on the form of the disease.
Usually there are two forms of salmonellosis:
- The typical form. Divided into subtypes of the infection – gastro-intestinal, septic, lipoptena;
- Atypical form. Subtypes of infection – worn, subclinical, bacteriocarrier.
The period of incubation period of salmonellosis in children may last from 2 hours to weeks. Period the incubation period depends on the level of the lesion, the shape of the disease and the number of bacteria trapped in the body.
For any form of disease is characterized by the following symptoms:
- An acute onset.
- The state of the fever.
- Frequent stools, which is accompanied by a fetid odor.
- Dehydration. Usually with this condition have dry mucous membranes and skin.
If the lesion occurs in the infant, the newborn may experience abdominal pain due to indigestion. The failure of the gastrointestinal tract of infants is due to the General intoxication. In this case the body temperature may be within the allowable. In children has been slow weight gain, they get restless, there may be persistent vomiting, dehydration can sink in the spring.
Symptoms depending on the forms of the disease
Symptoms of salmonellosis in children may vary. Usually signs of this infection depend on the type and extent of injury. Each variety of forms of this disease occurs in different ways and may have certain characteristic features.
In most common gastrointestinal salmonellosis in infants and children up to 1 year. In this type of pathology is lesion of the internal organs of the digestive system. Manifested in the form of gastritis, enterocolitis, gastroenteritis.
The first signs of this type of lesion can be the following:
- the increase in body temperature to 39-40 degrees, or she may go into a low-grade form;
- the occurrence of vomiting;
- pain inthe abdomen;
- it can be observed abundant loose stools, the presence of particles of undigested food. The structure of the chair has a greenish tint, accompanied by a sour smell;
- dehydration due to frequent vomiting and diarrhea.
In addition, E. coli Salmonella in children cause General intoxication, rapid heartbeat. Sometimes, you may experience cramps and the performance of cold sweat. The state of asthenia and the reduced pressure can be observed for a long time after completely disappear acute symptoms.
In this type of disease the child from one year and up to 3 years may be fever and paracrine. This condition may occur within 14 days. Seizures can occur and fade.
Signs accompanying this condition:
- Diarrhea with watery structure, which may occur 3-5 times a day.
- Intoxication with malaise, a state of weakness and headaches.
- In the mouth there is dryness, can also occur thickening of the tongue.
- Appear on the skin rash with hemorrhagic character.
- Increases liver.
A septic form
This form is quite rare, mainly salmonellosis in infants, is in septic form.
What are the symptoms accompanied by septic form?
- The increase in body temperature to 40 degrees and above.
- Vomiting and diarrhea, liquid stool with mucus and blood clots.
- Damage to the brain and its membranes.
- Often there is fever and excessive sweating;
After full recovery children can excrete the bacteria infections throughout the month. If such carriage has been observed for more than three months, the consequences of salmonellosis in children becoming chronic.
What can be complications
Dangerous Salmonella? The main danger of this disease is that the pathogens can then spread throughout the body and cause the formation of local foci of infectious lesions on the internal organs. This disease causes a decrease in the immune system, in addition, when the disease occurs exacerbation of chronic pathologies and layering new.
So how dangerous is Salmonella? This ailment may occur the following complications:
- Swelling of the brain and lungs.
- Renal failure.
- Arthritis in reactive form.
- Abscess of internal organs.
When the first symptoms of salmonellosis in a child, it is recommended to show it to the infectious disease specialist or gastroenterologist. It is important that diagnostics were carried out as early as possible, this will help to identify the disease and to conduct necessary treatment.
In order to make a diagnosis, the doctor conducts the following types of surveys:
- Analysis of feces to determine the presence of dysbiosis.
- General analysis of blood.
- The cultures of vomit.
- Phragmites – a survey of the reaction of indirect hemagglutination of blood.
After as is diagnosed salmonellosis in a child should begin treatment to cure salmonellosis in a child is not easy, but necessary, as this disease can cause serious consequences or become chronic.
It is important that medical therapy for each patient was conducted individually, because this disease everyone is different and has its own peculiarities depending on the form of the disease. In addition, many species of pathogens have increased resistance to the antibiotic means, so they are prescribed only in exceptional cases. The main treatment should be aimed at the correct and healthy diet, as well as to eliminate dehydration. If there is light signs of infection, then the treatment can be carried out at home. If there are complications, the hospitalization of the patient with subsequent treatment in hospital.
Advice on nutrition
How to treat the child with nutrition? Children who are 2-3 years younger, should be fed only natural products. From the first days of the disease, it is recommended to follow a diet of table No. 4. Definitely food should be in the form of mashed and cooked.
To the permitted products include:
- Oatmeal or rice boiled. To prepare them to be on the water.
- The fish is boiled.
- The burgers are steamed.
- Jelly fruit.
- Hard cheese fat content of 0%.
It is forbidden to consume animal fats, milk, coarse fiber.
The diet should be followed for 30 days. The power to expand slowly allowed to add some products. In a month you can switch to the usual food, but on the condition that all signs of infection were completely gone.
As remove toxins
Ill with salmonellosis should provide first aid – gastric lavage. This procedure will ease the condition and also displays the body of toxic elements that have toxicimpact. Own washing can be done for the children over 3 years old.
Features of the home cleanse:
- To cleanse will require 2% sodium bicarbonate solution or water (2-3 liters).
- The liquid for cleaning should be warm, its temperature should be about 20 degrees Celsius.
- Next you need to give the child a glass of water, so he drank it.
- To induce vomiting you can use pressure on the root of the tongue.
- Lavage is performed until, until the water is completely clean.
How to correct the dehydration
After gastric lavage is oral rehydration. For the procedure rehydration solutions manufactured for drinking, it is possible to use the following medications:
Application features of these solutions:
- It is generally recommended to give the child a half or a whole teaspoonful of the solution every 5 minutes.
- During the easiest form of the disease during the day, you must take about 30-40 ml of solution per 1 kilogram of body weight.
- In severe shown to take for 70 ml per 1 kilogram of body weight.
- Restoration of water-salt reserves is made within 2-3 days before the complete disappearance of all symptoms of intoxication.
If salmonellosis is accompanied by frequent vomiting, which makes it impossible to drink these solutions, in these cases, rehydration is carried out by intravenous way. For intravenous use glucose.
If infection be severe, while if revealed increased sensitivity of Salmonella to antibiotics, antibiotics for salmonellosis in children are the priority choice of therapy. Antibiotic funds are assigned to different groups:
- penicillins – Amoxiclav, ampicillin, resorption, etc.;
- cephalosporins – Zefix, Ceftriaxone;
- aminoglycosides – netilmicin;
- carbapenems – Meropenem.
Additionally, the doctor may prescribe the use of chelators – smecta, APSCO, POLYSORB.
Because antibiotics can cause various digestive disorders, must be assigned prebiotics for normalization of the intestinal microflora. The most effective periodical include duphalac, Linex bificol.
Treatment should trust the doctor that best pick up medicines, including at the time of the recovery period and prescribe recipes free drugs for children.
After the full course of treatment carried out monitoring of the condition of the patient for three months. Every month you have to hold the cultures. If detected negative for Salmonella, the child is removed from the register.
You need to check people who had contact with the patient, watching them for 7 days. The people contacting to the patient, is taken bacteriological analysis of feces. If the results are negative, the person is considered healthy.
How to treat at home
Treatment of salmonellosis in children in the home is carried out only in cases if the disease is of mild form. But still it is recommended to consult with your doctor. Than cure salmonellosis at home? In addition to antibiotics and drugs in the home, you can use folk remedies.
Effective is the infusion based on chamomile flowers, which is prepared according to the following scheme:
- In the pot you want to pour 50 grams of dried chamomile flowers.
- Chamomile pour a glass of hot water.
- Put on the fire proverjaem and boil for 5 minutes.
- Then, all infused for 4 hours.
- Then the broth is filtered.
Ready infusion should give the child 100 ml several times a day.
Prevention of salmonellosis in children will prevent this disease:
- All the food during preparation should be subject to thorough cooking, especially foods of animal origin.
- If the house has an infection carrier, then it should allocate separate funds for hygiene and the dishes.
- In any case do not allow a child to take in the mouth dirty toy, items from the floor.
- All toys should be washed with soap and water.
- Should not swim in dirty ponds.
- It is necessary to restrict the contact of children with poultry – chickens, ducks, geese.
If all the recommendations to avoid Contracting the disease. It is worth considering that salmonellosis is an infectious disease that can cause children serious complications, so it is important to treat this disease as early as possible.