How salmonellosis is transmitted from person to person: ways of transmission
Salmonellosis is one of the most widespread intestinal infectious diseases. It is dangerous for the child and for an adult. High fever, intoxication, massive diarrhea contribute to the development of the serious condition of the patient. In this article we have considered contagious or not Salmonella, the route of transmission of this disease, the possibility of infection from another person, the ways of its prevention.
What is salmonellosis
Salmonellosis is a disease belonging to the class of intestinal infections. It is called bacteria, Salmonella sticks.
These microorganisms are capable of long time to remain viable in the environment. So, in the water they can live 5 months in the meat – 6 months, and in butter - 4 months. These bacteria are quite well tolerated and high temperature. So, in eggs, when they jam, they survive for 5 minutes, and the meat – 20-30.
When it comes to frozen products Salmonella not only not die, but can proliferate. So the data about what frozen foods can be a source of salmonellosis, no more than a myth.
The human body is highly susceptible to this infectious disease. Particularly vulnerable to it children, people with weak immune systems and the elderly. After the disease the person is formed unstable immunity, which is not stored more than a year. But as species of Salmonella, there are many, the disease again almost straight away.
Ways and mechanisms of transmission
Many are wondering whether salmonellosis is contagious, as it passed from person to person is a bacterial disease. Knowledge about the transmission mechanism necessary for effective prevention and to protect themselves from infectious diseases.
The most frequent way of transmission of Salmonella is fecal-oral. People can become infected with this bacterium during the consumption of food infected by it. Also you can become infected while swimming in bodies of water infected by Salmonella.
Infection from animals
There are natural reservoirs of this bacterial infection. Most often transmitted Salmonella to humans from animals infected with it. Home-cooked poultry (chicken, duck) and animals (pigs and cattle) can be carriers of this bacterial infection.
Infected animals, or poultry, provided a strong immune system, do not get sick with salmonellosis, and are only its carriers. According to statistics, more than 50% of domestic pigs infected with this bacterial infection.
Infection with Salmonella most often occurs by eating insufficiently cooked eggs, meat or unsterilized milk and homemade dairy products. Often infected people, caring for infected animals or working in slaughterhouses, meat processing plants. The bacteria enter the body through poorly washed hands after such work.
Infection and contact with cats and dogs. About 10% of stray animals are carriers of Salmonella. Sometimes this disease occurs in Pets, walking on the street.
Contamination of agricultural animals, birds, dogs and cats with salmonellosis occurs with the consumption of contaminated water or swimming in it. To spread the infection among domestic animals may be wild birds, infecting the water in which they swim, their faeces.
Among the population there is a perception that if eggs are good wash with soap and water, they become completely safe and can't infect a person with salmonellosis. In fact, bacteria are on the shell, and in the middle of the egg, albumen and yolk. Egg wash on the surface can be many other dangerous microorganisms and chemicals, but by doing so, you will protect yourself from salmonellosis.
Infection from person
Indeed, it is possible to catch Salmonella from a person suffering from this disease or have recently experienced it. Thus, the route of infection remains the same fecal-oral. You can get infected from a sick person with joint glassware, failure to observe personal hygiene after shaking hands with him.
People can contaminate food during its preparation. This path is the main mass outbreaks of this people, eat in places catering. There are cases of infection of children in kindergartens and schools, the food which was prepared by infected people.
Salmonella is not transmitted through breast milk. The woman who became ill on them, no need to interrupt breastfeeding your baby.
Swimming in reservoirs
People also can be infected with Salmonella during bathing in reservoirs. Water, as a rule, they may be infected with feces of birds, animals or sick people.
Outbreaks of this disease sometimes develop in the summer "beach" season. And often hurt small children or adults who can not swim well, because infection occurs during ingestion of water from a reservoir.
What symptoms manifested salmonellosis
The symptoms of salmonellosis are not apparent immediately after infection. For this diseasetypical incubation period of from 6 hours to 2 days. At this time the bacteria actively multiply in the intestine, penetrate its walls, causing inflammation that produces toxins.
The main clinical manifestations of salmonellosis include the following symptoms:
- the increase in body temperature to 38-39 degrees;
- General weakness, chills, muscle aches, body aches;
- headache, dizziness;
- severe abdominal pain, localized in the intestine;
- nausea and vomiting;
- abundant and frequent diarrhea. The color of the stool has a characteristic greenish swamp color. At the same time the act of defecation is not accompanied by pain (tenesmus), as in dysentery;
- tachycardia – rapid heartbeat;
- can develop cramps in the calf muscle area. They are caused by water-electrolyte failure, dehydration;
- lowering blood pressure develops when the loss of body patient the amount of water during diarrhea;
- pale skin and visible mucous membranes;
- bloating and flatulence may develop intestinal colic;
- the decrease in daily urine volume develops on the background of dehydration. The body tries to preserve the remnants of the liquid.
This disease is dangerous strong intoxication and severe dehydration. In the absence of time to provide the patient with quality medical care it may start toxic shock.
What to do if signs of salmonellosis
In no case do not try to self-medicate this disease. At the first suspicion of infection, call an ambulance. Treatment of salmonellosis is carried out in the infectious ward.
Many people are afraid to go to the infectious Department, I believe that they will become infected is another sore. In fact, all the rooms in these offices are isolated from one another, and diseased patients are in separate boxes. Much more dangerous to stay home and put their life in danger.
Before the arrival of the ambulance can give the patient to drink sorbents, e.g., activated carbon, APSCO or sorbex. Then begin to use water. It is believed that after each act of defecation should drink a glass of water.
If severe vomiting treatment of dehydration will be carried out by physicians. They will connect the dropper and begin to administer intravenous fluids.
Prevention of salmonellosis could not provide complete protection from the disease. But it significantly reduces the risk of its development. Below, we have gathered for you the steps by which you can protect yourself and loved ones from this disease:
- Buy all products only at licensed markets or in stores. There are meat, dairy products and eggs are tested.
- Observe the basics of personal hygiene. Always wash your hands before preparing or eating food.
- Stick to sufficient heat treatment during cooking of meat products and eggs.
- When placement of a child in kindergarten or school do not hesitate to ask about the availability of medical records in workers canteens.
- Do not swim in bodies of water in which the drinking cattle. Also try during the voyage not to swallow the water.
Salmonellosis is a highly contagious intestinal infection. Catch it if you can eat eggs, meat or dairy products. Also infectious are the people who are suffering or have suffered salmonellosis in the recent past. The causative agent of this infection may be located in waters in which people swim. The symptoms of the disease develop during the first two days after infection. Salmonellosis manifests itself as a strong intoxication and profuse diarrhea, which quickly leads to severe dehydration. At the first signs of illness to immediately seek medical help, self-medication can lead to serious consequences.