The influence of nicotine on the human body: benefits and harms
Even a small experience of Smoking causes chronic intoxication with nicotine. In the human body accumulate harmful compounds and toxic resin. Under their negative influence is reduced the functional activity of all vital systems. Especially dangerous carcinogens contained in tobacco. These substances provoke cell mutations, resulting in the formation of benign and malignant tumors. The negative impact of nicotine on the human body has long been known and well studied. But people continue to smoke because of the well-formed mental and physical dependence.
The principle of action of nicotine
Nicotine belongs to the alkaloids of organic origin which in small quantities are synthesized in the roots of plants of the family Solanaceae, but accumulate in their leaves and stems. The pharmacology a compound known as a powerful toxin that can damage heart tissue, blood vessels and brain. Tobacco Smoking not only destroys healthy cells and causes their mutation under the influence of nicotine exacerbated many chronic diseases and new pathologies.
Small doses of toxic compounds contain eggplant, green peppers, potatoes and tomatoes. So to all the people who decided to break the habit, drug experts suggest to reconsider your diet. The number of cigarettes smoked significantly reduced with the constant use of salads and ragout of vegetables.
After penetration into the body, nicotine is absorbed into the bloodstream and after a few seconds turns in the Central nervous system. He seamlessly transcends all biological barriers, including the blood-brain. Toxic substance accumulates in the internal organs, brain, bone. With each smoked cigarette increases concentration and poisoning the body with nicotine increases. Under the influence of carcinogens change cell at the genetic level, but also increases their number:
- the division of healthy cells leads to the formation of benign tumors – polyps and cysts:
- the division of damaged and deformed cells triggers the formation of cancerous tumors.
Experts say that in the smoked cigarette contains less toxic compounds than the smoke. There is such a term – "passive Smoking". Nicotine is particularly dangerous for children and teenagers. Addicted to cigarettes the person puts at risk not only yourself but the people around him. The family members are under the influence of nicotine also formed tumors or develop disease, as in the smoker.
Trying to quit a bad habit, some people start using snuff and chewing tobacco. This not only helps to quit Smoking, but also increases addiction. The concentration of nicotine and toxic resins in these sorts of tobacco far exceeds the amount of toxic compounds in cigarettes.
Nicotine in the human body begins to act on specific acetylcholine receptors. The increase in their activity provokes enhanced production of stress hormones and joy – epinephrine and adrenaline. They are released into the blood and are carried to the Central nervous system, causing a person:
- the feeling of light excitation;
- a feeling of cheerfulness, burst of energy;
- euphoric state;
Smoking a cigarette, one feels pleasure and even happiness. This occurs under the influence of the pleasure hormone dopamine. This is exactly the psychological and physical dependence on nicotine. Man tries to again experience the euphoria and reaches for the cigarette. Scientists have identified and synthesized enzymatic compounds that can reduce the harm of nicotine, splitting it into harmless (often beneficial) nicotinic acid. But in humans these enzymes are not.
The heart and blood vessels
The dangers of nicotine on the heart and vessel is well studied. The penetration of cigarette smoke increases the load on the myocardium, veins, arteries, and capillaries. Reduces the production of biologically active substances, upset the nervous and humoral regulation. Increases heart rate, constricts peripheral vessels. If the flow of nicotine into the body happens regularly then the cardiovascular system there is practically no stage of relaxation. This leads to rapid ageing of the blood vessels damage, and in severe cases, and breach of integrity. Developing a variety of complications:
- increased blood viscosity;
- increases the risk of thrombosis;
- broken blood circulation.
Smoking affects the heart, but the threat and developing hypertension. High blood pressure causes arrhythmias, strokes and heart attacks. The person often begins to feel dizzy, the blood rushes to the upper body, there are fatigue and apathy. Hypertension can cause an increase in pressure in the renal vessels, which leads to a decrease in the functional activity of the urinary system.
Even a minimal amount of nicotine has a negative effect on the mucous tissueof the digestive system. The destruction exposed:
- teeth and gums;
- the liver and gallbladder.
The main reason for the development of gastric pathologies is the slowing down of digestion. The products are a long time in a hollow body, which leads to increased production of aggressive hydrochloric acid and pepsin. Digestive enzymes and caustic juice damage the epithelial cells. A man with a long Smoking history is negative, the process involves the deeper layers of the gastric walls. Their inner surface is deformed, it build up.
Smokers are rarely diagnosed with acute gastritis, it at once assumes a chronic form, which belongs to the precancerous. The body loses its ability to neutralize pathogenic microorganisms. On the ulcerated mucosa are viruses and bacteria forming infectious foci. They gradually become larger and cause dangerous inflammatory process of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. All smokers develops:
- slowing digestion;
- the death of the beneficial microflora in the intestine;
- chronic constipation or diarrhea.
To replace the beneficial bacteria in our intestines come pathogens. Reduced absorption of vitamins and minerals that has a bad effect on the appearance of a person. He start to exfoliate nails, hair falling out, lose their elasticity and firmness of the skin. Don't think many women who resort to Smoking, as an effective method to lose weight.
Nicotine can reduce appetite, but only for a short time. Gradually distorted the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates – the body weight starts to increase. As a result the person gains weight, but to quit Smoking can not because of the formed psychological and physical dependence.
The liver is located in the vicinity of the gastrointestinal tract and eventually begins to feel the negative impact of nicotine addiction. She is experiencing increased stress due to digestive disorders, so its tissues are injured. The liver is the most important biological filters of the body – reducing its functional activity under the influence of nicotine affects on other vital systems.
Tobacco smoke is the main cause of the development of nonspecific respiratory diseases. A constant flow of nicotine damages the mucous membranes of the trachea, pharynx, bronchi, and bronchioles. The alveolar walls lose their elasticity, become rough and swollen. Harmful than nicotine a smoker often develop:
- chronic bronchitis;
- bronchial asthma;
- laryngitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis.
We should also highlight the chronic smoker's cough. In the human body per day accumulates a significant amount of toxic substances and poisonous resins.
Just getting out of bed, the smoker starts to cough heavily. In this way cleansing the respiratory tract from harmful substances. Cough abates only at noon and starts again in the morning. If a person decides to get rid of bad habits, his lungs cleared only a few months.
The influence of nicotine on the lungs is extremely negative. Exposed to it may develop emphysema, a pathological condition characterized by an unnatural expansion of the lung. Every cigarette you smoke reduces their functional activity, and this seriously increases the risk of tuberculosis. Nicotine damages the vocal cords leads to hoarseness and osiplosti.
Nicotine affects the human body regardless of gender. According to statistics, many women and men start Smoking at an earlier age, before having children. Poisonous resin act directly on the organs responsible for reproduction. Especially vulnerable to toxic compounds of cigarettes the sexual organs of men.
Smoking provokes the distortion of spermatogenesis, reduces the potency, a predisposition to the development of prostate cancer. This contributes to violation of blood supply of pelvic organs due to the accumulation in the blood vessels of harmful substances.
Despite the fact that the dangers of nicotine is confirmed by scientific research, many women continue to smoke even during pregnancy. Tar contained in tobacco, lowers the production prolactinoma protein. Protein is responsible for cyclic menstruation, maintain in good condition the hormonal background of women. His frustration can lead to infertility, which is not always curable.
Toxic compounds freely penetrate through all the barriers, so the mother Smoking seriously endangers not only their health but also the unborn child. The negative effect of nicotine on the human body, which is not born cannot be overstated:
- increased risk of sudden death and congenital anomalies;
- the brain is subjected to oxygen starvation;
- the lungs do not receive sufficient oxygen;
- increases the possibility of suffocation;
- increases the risk of lagging behind in mental andphysical development;
- a premature delivery.
After the birth of a child, he gets nicotine, along with breast milk. Studies have shown, in spite of good heredity, from Smoking may crash at the genetic level. Disturbed the molecular structure of DNA and the children with disorders of the nervous system. Undoubtedly, this will have a negative impact on the brain, will guarantee bad learning. According to the statistics, the child Smoking mother's craving for cigarettes is much higher than their peers.
The brain and nicotine
The influence of nicotine on the nervous system only negative, after all constituent substances are neurotoxins. Lungs from toxic compounds enter the blood, causing a reflex compression of blood vessels. The brain begins to experience a lack of molecular oxygen. Blood circulation in the Central nervous system, which despite its complex organisation, is not sustainable. Small doses of nicotine lead to its initiation and significant – inhibit the activity of neurons.
Upset activities are not only Central but also peripheral nervous system. Inflammation develops in the nerve trunks, in humans, there are:
- apathy, lethargy, fatigue;
- headaches and migraine.
Doctors strongly recommend to stop Smoking people with neurological disorders. Even the inhalation of tobacco smoke aggravates the disease, and for long delays the recovery. The influence of nicotine on the brain is not limited only to reduced physical activity. A person experiences problems with memory, which negatively affects their professional activities. This is based on a distorted transmission of nerve impulses, disorders of regulation.
The benefits of nicotine
Like most alkaloids, nicotine has some positive effect on the human body. For example, scientists have shown that the frequency of seizures in schizophrenic smokers is lower than that of leading a healthy lifestyle. This disease occurs on the background of insufficient production of proteins, which are responsible for communication between neurons. A person with schizophrenia appears anxiety, visual and auditory hallucinations, emotional instability. The use of nicotine for the body of such people is to normalize production of proteins and reducing the severity of the disease.
Nicotine is useful in that it is able to suppress craving for drugs. Based on it can be soon developed tools to help you get rid of narcotic dependence. Nicotine is also used in medicine as an antidote for ricin poisoning and for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.