Substance abuse: what it is, signs, effects, treatment addiction
Substance abuse is a collection of painful conditions that are characterized by addiction to pharmaceutical drugs or other chemicals unrelated to drugs. Often addiction arises at teenagers, gives them a feeling of permissiveness and lack of any problems. The abuse of toxic substances not only causes serious harm to the health of the people is rapidly deteriorating, it becomes unstable. Pathology is difficult to treat established physical and psychological dependence.
Characteristics of substance abuse
Experts do not find major differences between substance abuse and addiction. It is two kinds of substance abuse, the purpose of which is the onset of euphoria. The clinical picture of these impulses to chemical compounds are the same – even after a single use is developing extensive chronic intoxication of the organism and is formed of psychophysical dependence.
There is one minor difference – children's substance abuse is characterized by more pronounced mental addiction that is taken into account by professionals in therapy. Under the action of chemical substances are developing psychological disorders, a decrease in the functional activity of all vital systems. Middle children are more prone to it substance abuse because of the relative cheapness used to obtain the euphoria of drugs or chemicals.
People are so rapidly degraded that only the intervention of family members and friends can save him. Is important for effective therapy is the desire of the addict to start treatment depending.
Only a small proportion of children and adults to substance abuse. Drug experts have compiled a list of personal characteristics of people who sniff glue "Moment" or breathe gasoline vapors:
- passivity, apathy, indifference to what is happening around;
- infantilism, inability and unwillingness to take decisions;
- dependence on the opinions of others;
- emotional instability, frequent change of mood.
People, who have developed strong addiction to the chemical compounds generally have a primitive inner world, has no interest in work or study, cannot organize the leisure and not a hobby. Such people are uneducated and ill-mannered.
Inability to obtain pleasure from reading books, attending the events or watching movies pushes them to find other entertainment. Breathing in the toxic fumes of solvents and varnishes, addicts receive impressions arise of hallucinations. They are so real that teenagers form groups to contemplation of collective visions. This also distinguishes drug addiction from substance abuse.
Substance abuse in adolescents
Teenage substance abuse is an important social problems of modern society. Diagnosed more cases of physical and psychological dependence in children under 12 years of age. They are easy to engage senior colleagues in the group to obtain the collective hallucinations.
Children have a curiosity, posturing, desire to feel older. For this age is not characterized by self-criticism, so Teens are not able to assess ourselves, to realize the danger of the situation and future consequences.
Drug treatment klassificeret provoking substance abuse factors in the following way:
- Social causes. Pathological dependency is often formed in children from disadvantaged families. They are left to themselves, their behavior and day mode is not controlled by parents. A large amount of free time, no Hobbies lead teenagers on a street where there is already established the company more than adult addicts.
- Psychological reasons. The lack of attention of relatives or, conversely, too strict control on their part lead to the use of toxic compounds. This they seek to prove to themselves and others that have long become adults.
Often children of the same age take the dare. Wanting to prove their independence, teenagers try harmful compounds. For the immature organism is usually enough of a breath for the emergence of persistent mental and physical dependence.
Intoxicating consciousness properties are various toxins that are available for teenagers: glue, gasoline, some paints and solvents. With their help, addicts stimulate an unusual and vivid experience. On human health of toxic compounds have a negative effect so that after a few months of use lesions have been diagnosed in almost all internal organs.
The main phases of intoxication when substance abuse
The harm of substance abuse is the negative impact of chemicals on humans, especially children. If an adult is at some stage able to realize that you should stop and remove the pack from the head, for a teenager could end up fatal. And it's not some life experience. The child's body is at the stage of formation. Adolescents have relatively low resistance to harmful substances and highthe permeability of blood vessels. This contributes to the rapid spread of toxic compounds blood to the vital organs.
Inhalation of chemical vapors are more likely to suffer cardiovascular and Central nervous system. They are responsible for breathing and heartbeat of a person. Only a small excess of the dose can provoke severe poisoning and coma.
How is toxic intoxication:
- The first stage. At this stage of substance abuse the person experiences an intoxication similar to alcohol. He is in excellent spirits, he completely relaxed, he thinks he can solve all problems.
- The second stage. If the inhalation of poisonous fumes of glue and gasoline continues, then comes the second stage, for which adolescents and adults gather in groups. This stage is characterized by the appearance of causeless joy, laughter, a sharp weakening of self-control.
- The third stage. To the stage of intoxication seeking addicts with the experience. A person experiences auditory and visual hallucinations, characterized by brilliance and reliability. This stage lasts several hours, after which the person feels a strong sense of fatigue, apathy, weakness. Sharply reduced the functional activity of the brain.
If you passed all stages of intoxication, the person uncontrollably sleepy. He can fall asleep on the spot, where breathed the toxic substances in the garage, the basement or the building under construction. This creates an additional threat to a child's life, especially in the cold season.
The types of substance abuse
Substance abuse is classified depending on the used substances. As a rule, they are all in walking distance for adolescents, and some of them go to the children absolutely free. The main types of substance abuse are treatable only in the early stages of the pathological process.
Substance abuse gasoline
Benzene, toluene and xylene contained in gasoline, can cause intoxication similar to alcohol, causing enormous harm. They also belong to the dangerous carcinogens, compounds that provoke the development of human malignant tumors. Children simply open the lid of the fuel tanks of parked cars and inhale the fumes. There is irritation of the mucosa of the upper and lower respiratory tract, cough and shortness of breath. The abuser:
- face blush;
- disturbed coordination of movements;
- quickens the heart rate;
- pupils dilate;
- getting slurred speech.
The next stage intoxication occurs euphoria on the background of the productive psychopathology, similar to delirium tremens – there are visual and auditory hallucinations. 1-2 hours after cessation of exposure to toxic fumes on the Central nervous system of the addicts get headaches, irritability, retching.
Substance abuse with acetone
This kind of substance abuse is characterized by hallucinatory experiences is so strong and colorful that people cease to Orient in time and surrounding space. Teenagers are attracted to the rapid development of euphoria, in which occurs a semiconscious state. To determine on the road to recovery is very easy in appearance – his drooping eyelids, he does not respond to sounds.
An overdose of acetone it most often provokes a deep coma due to the negative impact of chemical compounds on the human brain. Even after a single inhalation of toxic fumes appear irreversible effects in the Central nervous system. Addicts become emotionally unstable, they have disrupted the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
Glue sniffing glue
Glue "Moment" was the cause of death for teenagers. Under the influence of chemical compounds is developing so intense euphoria that the child simply does not have time to remove the head with a plastic bag and dies of an overdose. Parents it is very difficult to recognize the symptoms of substance abuse in their children. On the development of adhesive addiction may indicate only the reddened eyelids, and severe nausea, which adolescents successfully disguised as the poisoning of food.
Substance abuse solvent nitrokrasok
Inhalation of vapors of these solvents provokes a mental disorder and hyperactivity. A person's mood changes rapidly: only that he was kind to others, and after a minute there is a flash of unmotivated aggression. Continuous toxic gas from chemical substances leads to the emergence of delusions and hallucinations. In humans, there is a feeling of lightness throughout the body, but it is substituted with the strongest weakness, headache, nausea and vomiting.
The formation of addiction
Not a single psychiatrist is not the answer to the question about how many live addicts. Some teenagers quite a few times to inhale toxic fumes to cardiac arrest. Meet and addicts with the experience. But their body is so worn out that the cause of death often becomes a regular viral or bacterial infection.
It is impossible to predict how quickly the Teens have formed a dependence on glue or gasoline. But only few of them, feeling the symptoms of a toxic hangover, refuse further usechemicals.
Mental dependence is formed much faster than the physical one healthy person breathing poisonous fumes. The teenager wants to feel the euphoria and see hallucinations. The lack of relaxed mood causes nervous tension and sharp change of mood. People quickly forget the symptoms of General intoxication: vomiting, excruciating headache, and fatigue. They only remember the euphoria and tend to repeat it again. And this requires constant inhalation of chemicals. Substance abuse becomes the meaning of human life, he is constantly in search of funds and space for the implementation of this mania.
Few weeks is the formation of permanent physical dependence. Body addicts can not do without chemical compounds, they become an integral part of its metabolism of substances. If during the day is no receipt in the bloodstream, the person starts breaking comparable to the one that occurs in drug addicts.
Weekly use of chemicals leads to the development of daily substance abuse. After a couple of months old dose does not cause immediate feelings of euphoria, and it has to improve. Addicts sniffing more concentrated substances or doing a greater number of breaths. People with significant term based on use of increased amounts of toxic substances, but rarely achieve the original euphoric state. In the future, they are forced to resort to heavy cheap drugs.
If the abuser for any reason stops use, it is the oppression of the Central and autonomic nervous systems. Within a few weeks the person experiences effects of withdrawal syndrome. The provision of skilled medical help at this stage will help the addict to conquer physical and psychological dependence.
Signs of substance abuse
Substance abuse in adolescents is characterized by an earlier onset of symptoms formed addiction. The severity of symptoms is directly dependent on the type of consumed substance, the child's age and initial health status. Also important is the ability of some teenagers hide the symptoms or mask them under a harmless disease. But there are General signs of substance abuse in adolescents:
- Clothes, hair, skin of a teenager, you receive a specific chemical smell. With a long history of drug use, the child begins to exhale sharply smelling of acetone or gasoline vapors.
- In adolescents, reduced memory and attention. At random he answers the questions of parents who are not aware of what is happening at home or school events.
- The child loses the ability to convey their thoughts to others, he confused the words in mid-speech forgetting what I wanted to tell first.
- Teenager always angry, not ready to communicate with family members. He experiences mood swings that may appear unmotivated aggression to animals.
- The child ceases to observe the rules of personal hygiene: not taking a shower, his clothes always looks sloppy.
- The teenager begins to fall behind in school for no reason.
For addicts of the characteristic and physical changes. All used chemicals foreign to Teens and have a negative impact on the human body. The immune system reacts to their penetration into the bloodstream the development of allergic reactions. On the skin addicts appear redness, rashes, in severe cases even blisters.
The symptoms death of brain cells with substance abuse include recurrent headaches localized in my temples and the back of the head. Also drug treatment there are the following symptoms of chronic intoxication:
- constantly inflamed mucous membranes of the nasopharynx;
- digestive disorders: nausea, lack of appetite, flatulence, heartburn;
- drowsiness, apathy, reduced physical activity:
- reduced functional activity of the urinary system: impaired voiding, and changes the color and smell of urine.
At the stage of well-formed according to the child can twitch hands and feet, until the development of seizures. This indicates a severe toxicity and requires differential diagnosis and medical treatment in a hospital.
Treatment of substance abuse
An addict is a man whose morbid addiction are able to eliminate only the doctors of narrow specialization. The treatment of such patients is performed in a hospital under constant supervision of qualified medical personnel. Therapy for addicts is only with their full consent, therefore, some clinics do not accept patients in a state of intoxication.
Almost all addicts are not able to understand the problem and to decide on the need for urgent therapy. Treatment starts at the moment when a teenager under the influence of forced psychological pressure agrees to go to rehab.
Get rid of substance abuse using a range of activities:
- Detoxification therapy. Patient injection preparations for removing accumulated toxicconnections.
- Treatment of diseases that have arisen against the use of chemicals.
- A necessary part of adequate treatment are interviews with a trained psychologist.
In the most severe cases, the treatment of substance abuse requires the involvement of a psychiatrist. Only the tandem of specialists will help your child understand the problem. In the future, it is necessary to ex-addicts for a quick and successful socialization. The psychologist definitely has a conversation with his parents. If the adolescent is not diagnosed well-formed dependency, the specialists usually recommend to change the place of residence or educational institution. You should try to captivate the child in any case: write it in the sports section or a computer course.