The types of poisonings: food, chemical, mushrooms etc.
Poisoning is a pathological condition of the body resulting from the penetration of toxic components. Varieties of poisoning a lot, but they have the same signs and almost the same health risks. But, despite the types of poisoning, emergency care must be immediately to avoid unpleasant consequences.
Types of poisoning
All the acute human toxicity are divided into several groups, depending on what was the cause of intoxication.
- Food poisoning – the health of the person deteriorates from the use of substandard or expired products.
- Poisoning chemicals – caustic alkalis and acids. Sometimes the careless use of these components in the home or in the workplace.
- Poisoning with medicines and drugs.
- Poisoning poisons that are used in industrial production.
- Alcohol intoxication may result in excessive consumption of alcohol beverages, or if the alcohol is of poor quality.
- Arsenic poisoning.
- Poisoning with carbon dioxide.
- Intoxication with pesticides and insecticides that are used in the agricultural sector for pest control.
The first line in medical statistics is food poisoning. This is a serious condition caused by toxic substances of diverse origin – biological and non-biological. The types of food poisoning are divided so:
- toxicity from eating poisonous herbs or animals;
- food toxic infections, poisoning microorganisms;
- toxicity of different chemical compounds.
Severe intoxication from ingestion of poor quality food arise from contamination of products with pathogens or saturation with toxins, remnants of the collapse of microbes. This condition has a medical name – poisoning. Pathogens are Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus and other kinds of intestinal infections. The source of infection be diseased or healthy people, but who are carriers.
Microorganisms multiply in food very quickly, especially in conditions of high temperature and humidity, then easily get into human organism together with food.
Contaminated food is characterized by the unsightly appearance and unpleasant smell. If it is a first or second course, on its surface may appear bubbles, which indicate the souring of food. But there are times when food with absolutely normal organoleptic properties caused serious illness.
The symptoms of food poisoning
Food intoxication begins to develop in the first hours after the consumption of poor quality food. The main signs are as follows:
- distressing nausea with increased salivation;
- indomitable vomiting, recurring every few minutes;
- severe diarrhea is foul-smelling, profuse and watery.
The disease usually occurs up to three days, but after that for a long time the victim bother dyspeptic symptoms.
First aid for poisoning
Methods of first aid traditional and consist of the following activities.
- As soon as the first signs of intoxication should be washed stomach of the patient. You can use pure water, soda solution or a solution of activated charcoal. Overdose of baking soda or charcoal in this case is not dangerous, as the fluid exits a few seconds.
- Give the patient plenty to drink. The fluid volume can vary up to three liters per day. For best results doctors recommended to mix in water a little salt and sugar.
- During the course of the disease the diet should be balanced.
Antibiotics for the treatment should appoint a doctor, in any case can not self-medicate!
- Diarrhea in the first days it is not recommended to treat, so naturally out toxins. Further, it is possible to use funds from diarrhoea.
- During the recovery period recommended probiotics and other medicines for the population of the intestine with beneficial microorganisms. Good results are obtained by the use of bifidokefir several times a day.
When poisoning strikes pregnant woman, young child or elderly person in need of hospitalization.
In addition, immediately call a physician is required if a person crashes in breathing, unconsciousness or absence of any reflexes.
Poisoning caustic chemicals
This type of poisoning is quite specific symptoms. The victim can be found on the burns of the lips and mouth, vomiting with specks of blood and strong pain when swallowing. General principles of first aid are primarily in the call to the resuscitation team.
To wash out the stomach of the victim is possible only through a tube of large diameter. It is not desirable to prevent vomiting, as it can drastically affect the esophagus.
To alleviate the condition of man before the ambulance can be put on the stomach a hot water bottle with cold water or ice and allow to dissolve ice cubes. To reduce the harmful effects on the stomach give the patient enveloping products: butterbutter, bananas, jelly and raw eggs.
In this type of acute poisoning, you cannot use soda for washing the stomach. In reaction with chemical substances occurs flatulence – this can cause damage to the stomach.
Intoxication with drugs and drug
Herbs drugs most often children who out of curiosity try drugs, and adults who self-medicate. The characteristic features of this species of poisoning are drowsiness, dizziness, decrease heart rate, convulsions and noises in the ears. If the person used a lot of drugs, there may be hallucinations, especially if it's a sedative.
To first aid include the following:
- Lavage of the stomach.
- Warming person.
The victim can not give to sleep, you need to get him to talk and walk. If a person breathless and fails of the heart, then carry out resuscitation.
Intoxication by industrial toxins
Industrial toxins – a number of substances that are used for production purposes. Hit them in the stomach can cause irreversible. The most dangerous liquid is antifreeze, a SIP of this substance leads to death. The first signs of poisoning appear after 7-8 hours. This is usually a General weakness, nausea, uncontrollable vomiting, then join hallucinations, and seizures. Later the victim falls into a coma.
In the industry uses chemicals that smell and taste like alcohol. Among them is methanol. 20 grams of methyl alcohol can lead to atrophy of the optic nerve and loss of consciousness. Using 30-100 grams of the alcohol, the person may die.
Not rare in medicine, the cases of alcohol poisoning. The trouble occurs from excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages or from consuming underground vodka of low quality. The first symptoms of poisoning are:
- a sense of euphoria;
- change the color of the skin: the victim first becomes red, then pale;
- falling into an unconscious state.
These types of intoxication can cause disorders in the nervous system, and in serious conditions can lead to disability or death.
As an immediate assistance to a person give to smell ammonia, then washed stomach a large volume of water. Then give him hot sweet tea and lay in bed, surrounded by hot bottles.
If a person is swallowed arsenic, he developed uncontrollable vomiting and diarrhoea resulting in cramps and numb limbs. To save the victim's life, urgent need to call an ambulance.
Intoxication with gas
For signs of gas poisoning include headache, muscle weakness, persistent dizziness, low blood pressure, buzzing in the ears, and seizures. The man who had been sniffing gas, want to quickly put on the street, give hot tea or coffee. When the fainting give to smell ammonia. If necessary, carry out CPR.
If there is suspicion of poisoning technical poisons, you need to urgently call a doctor. But before his arrival, without wasting precious minutes to make the victim gastric lavage and enema.
Every person need to know what are the poisoning. This will help in an emergency not to get lost and to help the victim to maintain life and health.