Ammonia poisoning: symptoms, first aid

Ammonia is a gaseous chemical substance which is widely used in various industries, industry, medicine. Known to all ammonia is ammonia solution. In this article, we discussed of ammonia poisoning, the main reasons and the first signs of this intoxication, the amount of first aid to the injured person.

Causes of ammonia toxicity

Ammonia is produced in various concentrations. Its minimum number (10%) is ammonia solution, and the maximum (40%) in solvents that you can buy in DIY stores. Ammonia has a distinctive odor, which is to confuse.

Below are the main potential causes of ammonia intoxication.

  • The accident at the plant where a leak of ammonia. In this case, there is a mass poisoning of the ammonia, which can lead to death of a large number of production staff and people living nearby to the factory.
  • The use of solvents during the self-repair work. Ammonia – a major component of household solvents.
  • Not following the rules of personal safety while working with ammonia in the workplace.
  • Intoxication with ammonia. Many wonder, is it possible to poison the medical ammonia. In this preparation the concentration of ammonia is quite high. In medicine it is used to bring to life drunk. Symptoms of intoxication develop long-term inhalation of its fumes.
  • Oral ingestion of ammonia in the body extremely rare and is fatal. Drinking ammonia can people with suicidal ideation with suicidal intent.
  • Getting ammonia in eyes causes severe burns of the conjunctiva.

The symptoms of ammonia intoxication

Signs of ammonia poisoning develop during the first 5-10 minutes after contact with this substance. They dramatically increase. The weight of the patient depends on the duration of contact and concentration of the ammonia solution. The nature of the signs of damage by ammonia depend on the way it enters the body.

The table below presents the typical symptoms of ammonia intoxication at different routes of exposure.

A way to enter The main clinical manifestations of poisoning
Through the respiratory tract
  • profuse serous nasal discharge (rhinorrhea);
  • redness of the visible mucous membranes;
  • dry cough;
  • increased secretion of saliva;
  • watery eyes;
  • shortness of breath, shallow rapid breathing;
  • feeling short of breath;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • pain in the chest;
  • disturbance of consciousness;
  • convulsive disorder;
  • pressing in the temples headache.
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • severe pain in the stomach;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • cramps throughout the body;
  • spontaneous discharge of feces and urine.
The mucous membrane of the eye
  • watery eyes;
  • feeling pain and pains in the eyes;
  • blurred vision;
  • burns of the conjunctiva.
  • redness of the skin;
  • the appearance of burn blisters at the site of contact with ammonia;
  • pain.

Remember that in severe cases, the victim develops swelling of the Airways, stopping breathing and heartbeat, which can lead to death. The penetration of ammonia into the eyes can lead to total irreversible loss of sight.

First aid for ammonia poisoning

What to do in case of ammonia poisoning, how to help the victim?

First you need to stop contact of the patient with toxic chemicals, bring it to fresh uncontaminated air. When breathing ammonia poisoning symptoms develop very quickly.

For the most effective assistance should be poisoned to stop panicking, to pull myself together and act quickly.

Remember that before the first aid to the victim you need to ensure its security. If you work for a business, you need to know, than to moisten a bandage to protect from ammonia. It is best to use 2% acetic or citric acid.

Once you was in a safe place, you need to immediately call the ambulance. Explain to the dispatcher what happened, give the number of victims, the alleged toxic substance and the correct location and the exact address. After calling the brigade SMEs can begin to provide first aid to the patient.

First aid for ammonia poisoning through the respiratory tract

  1. Provide patient access to fresh air. Loosen his shirt and tie. If you are indoors, open the window wide open for ventilation.
  2. Let the patient rinse with plain water mouth, throat and nose, wash his eyes out.
  3. Make victim drink mineral or table water, sweet tea.

What to do when hit with ammonia on the skin or eyes

When getting ammonia in eyes or on skin, rinse the injured area with running water for 20-25 minutes.

Oral poisoning

Ammonia when injected into the stomach causesa burn of the mucous membrane of the esophagus and stomach. Induce vomiting or try to flush you out by yourself at home is prohibited. These actions will lead to re-burn the lining of the esophagus, can trigger the development of pain shock and internal bleeding. Gastric lavage is performed only by paramedics with the use of the probe.

If a person by accident or on purpose drank ammonia solution, you must give him to drink a glass of plain water. The liquid will dissolve the concentration of the chemical in the stomach cavity and reduce its irritating and toxic effect.

Treatment of ammonia intoxication

Treatment of ammonia poisoning starts with the paramedics. They assess the patient's condition, checking his blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, saturation of blood. They then proceed to actions aimed at stabilizing the patient and preparing him for hospitalization.

First aid consists of:

  • connect patient to oxygen through the mask;
  • administration of atropine (an antidote ammonia);
  • intravenous fluids for rehydration;
  • gastric lavage through the probe (by the oral route of poisoning);
  • the normalization of respiratory rate and blood pressure levels.

Sick with ammonia poisoning admitted to the toxicology or intensive care unit. The duration and amount of treatment depend on the path of contact and duration of contact with the chemical.

Ammonia poisoning is a serious and dangerous condition. It can lead to severe disorders in the functioning of internal organs and internal bleeding. To treat this condition by yourself is strictly prohibited. The first step is to stop contact of the patient with ammonia, and to call an ambulance. Further treatment is carried out in a hospital. Its duration is directly correlated with the severity of the patient's condition and his development of complications.