Signs of carbon dioxide poisoning
Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is a colourless and transparent gas that have absolutely no smell. It is widely used in industry and in different industries. Poisoning with this substance can develop for many reasons and can lead to serious human condition. In this article, we reviewed the etiology, main symptoms, which may manifest carbon dioxide poisoning, basic first aid skills in the development of this intoxication status, indications for treatment to the doctor.
Possible causes of poisoning
Carbon dioxide poisoning most often occurs in people in contact with him in the workplace. This substance is widely used in the following industries:
- of electric works;
- in metallurgy;
- in the manufacture of soda and sugar;
- in the manufacture of urea, carbonate of ammonium;
- in refrigeration industry;
- the manufacture of artificial waters enriched with minerals;
- in the manufacture of beer;
- in the production of metabolic compounds;
- included with dry ice.
Carbon dioxide is considered a very insidious poison to the human body. It has no odor or color, and the person before occurrence of the first symptom of poisoning is not unaware of the contamination of the room in which it resides.
Normal carbon dioxide is always present in the air we breathe. There he is in a small concentration, less than 0.1%. Elevated possible in coal mines, in the factories in which it is used or produced. Increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide may occur in sewage wells.
Most often carbon dioxide poisoning develops in divers who have been driving the cylinders with breathing mixture. The diver may lose consciousness while still in the water.
When the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air reduces the amount of oxygen in it. The person who is in a room contaminated with this chemical, suffers not only from its irritating effects on the body, but also from lack of oxygen. Increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide may occur in sewage wells.
How carbon dioxide affects the human body
Carbon dioxide is harmful to the human body. Of poisoning with this substance are not common, especially when compared to the frequency of intoxication by carbon monoxide. But at the same time, all the CO2 poisoning is more severe, can lead to death.
Poisoning a person develops when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the inhaled air to 2%. It is under such, at first glance, a small concentration of people are beginning to disrupt the health, there are the first symptoms of intoxication.
When the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air, reduces the amount of oxygen in it. The person who is in the room, those contaminated by chemical, suffers not only from its irritating effects on the body, but also from lack of oxygen.
Carbon dioxide acts on the human body like a drug. It is irritating to mucous membranes, eyes, respiratory tract, affects the Central nervous system. Carbon dioxide leads to palpitations, rise in blood pressure.
On the background of the inhalation of carbon dioxide humans can easily in a short period of time to develop acute respiratory failure. In this case the body suffers not only from the toxic effects of carbon dioxide, but also from lack of oxygen.
When the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air up to 3% may be respiratory failure and death from suffocation (asphyxia). This chemical affects the Central nervous system, leading to blockage of the respiratory center.
A lethal dose of carbon dioxide is considered to be individual for each person. Irreversible changes in the body can occur with increasing concentrations up to 3-4%.
How does carbon dioxide poisoning
Signs of carbon dioxide poisoning appear within minutes after the start of inhalation. First, there are symptoms of irritation of the mucous membranes, skin and respiratory tract. A person has watery eyes, dry cough, burning of the skin..
Carbon dioxide poisoning has a medical name for hypercapnia. This is a condition in which the body increases the concentration of CO2.
The main symptoms of hypercapnia, acute poisoning with carbon dioxide:
- Dry cough, arising from tickling in the throat, irritation of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. This cough is not productive, when it is not observed the expectoration of mucus and sputum.
- Headache accompanied by severe dizziness. This pain can be very strong in intensity to resemble a migraine attack. But unlike the past, when carbon dioxide poisoning the entire head hurts, and not one half of it.
- Severe nausea that can be accompanied by vomiting, not bringing relief. Vomiting usually has a Central origin, and is caused by irritation of the vomiting center in the brain.
- Shortness of breath of mixed character. The victim becomes difficult as to inhale and exhale. His breathing becomes rapid,superficial, ineffective.
- Pale skin and visible mucous membranes. Also, they may be bluish (cyanosis). These symptoms develop due to lack of oxygen and increasing hypoxia.
- Disturbance of consciousness. The patient gradually falls in the first stupor and then deep coma.
- Generalized seizures (as in epilepsy) occur as a result of acute hypoxia. These seizures take place on the background of impaired consciousness. They may be accompanied by spontaneous discharge of urine and feces (due to relaxation of the sphincters).
- Rapid pulse (tachycardia) and high blood pressure are observed in mild forms of poisoning. In severe intoxication with carbon dioxide of the patient is reduced heart rate and plummeting blood pressure.
Death occurs due to respiratory failure. This poisoning is considered very dangerous to humans..
What to do in case of poisoning with CO2
As you can understand, time to rescue poisoned with carbon dioxide person quite a bit. Death from respiratory arrest can occur in minutes, we must act quickly.. First of all you need to bring intoxicated person from the contaminated room, as every minute spent in it, his condition will deteriorate.
Upon withdrawal of the victim from hazardous and contaminated areas should first ensure their own safety, wearing a gas mask.
After the man was in a safe area, call the ambulance, on the phone, tell the dispatcher your exact location that the crew didn't waste any time looking for you.
If the patient has severe shortness of breath, no need to lay them on a flat surface. It will be easier reclining. Unbutton his shirt, tie, make sure that nothing prevents him to breathe freely. If he is in the room, need to open wide open all Windows.
Before the arrival of doctors do not leave the intoxicated person alone, without supervision. In case of violation of consciousness put him on his side. In this position, the risk of zahlebyvayas vomit or suffocation from sunken language is minimal.
Monitor the patient heart rate and respiration. The pulse easier and more convenient to check on the carotid artery in the neck. Where this vessel passes directly beneath the skin, to feel its pulse. Breathing can be checked by placing the hand on the chest of the patient. The ear listen to the breath, and the eyes look lifted your hand when excursions of the chest on the inhale and down on exhale. In the case of cessation of breathing and heartbeat you need to do cardio-pulmonary resuscitation.
First aid is the physicians who have arrived on a call. They examine the victim, check his pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate and saturation level.
Then they connected the patient to oxygen, it is served through the mask. It is very important that oxygen is supplied without pressure. If necessary, are administered drugs to eliminate the symptoms of poisoning. Headaches used 50% solution of dipyrone, in the case of nausea and vomiting of metoclopramide is assigned.
The oxygen supply is carried out under control of blood gas composition. Also, the patient is taken to the analysis of electrolyte composition of blood, if necessary, it is corrected by drugs. In the case of prompt medical treatment the prognosis is favorable.
Hospitalization of poisoned person is carried out urgently in the nearest intensive care unit.
There he is given the necessary assistance and the correction of the vital indicators.
Prevention of poisoning
Prevention of carbon dioxide poisoning involves respect for people safety rules for work in industries that use this substance. Cause of poisoning may be negligent attitude of the leadership of enterprises and the supply of workers with personal protection equipment.
You must conduct a briefing with workers of factories for safety, and tell them of possible dangers. People need to know what to do in case of poisoning, as by their actions to help each other and defend themselves.
Carbon dioxide is dangerous to human substance. Due to the fact that it has absolutely no smell and color, to suspect contamination of the building almost impossible. People understand that is in danger already during the first signs of poisoning. With the development of intoxication with carbon dioxide should immediately leave the contaminated area and call an ambulance. To cope with this condition impossible.
Carbon dioxide poisoning is a very serious and dangerous disease. Its treatment should be by doctors. The sooner it starts, the patient more likely to survive and not lose the ability to work. Self-medicating is dangerous and prohibited. Yourself only to give the patient first aid while waiting for medical teams.