Rotavirus enteric infection in children and adults: symptoms, treatment
Because of the unsanitary conditions, poor hygiene, overeating and also due to the fact that in the environment the lives of many viruses and bacteria that cause intestinal infections, there is no man who would not suffer them. The most common ailment among viral infections is considered to be the rotavirus. The symptoms and treatment of intestinal rotavirus infection in children that parents need to know and adults about this issue, how to prevent and cope with "intestinal flu" – the reader will learn from this article.
Characteristics of the disease
Often after visiting countries with hot climates, after a trip to the sea, stay in the southern latitudes, people get infected with rotavirus infection. So goes the view that it is characterized by a circulation only in the South. However, it is not so: rotavirus no less extended to the North, and the incidence and prevalence of seasonal epidemics depends on the cleanliness of streets, neatness of the premises, timely wet cleaning on the streets.
Rotavirus is an intestinal infection of viral nature, which affects the gastrointestinal tract, irritating the mucosa and causing his vomiting and diarrhea. The disease has overgrown with rumors and legends: it is believed that its name comes from the word "mouth" and as it hints at the fact that the mouth area is subject to infection and colonization of the virus, causing him the greatest harm. There is also an Association with vomiting, which is rightly called the main symptom of infection. But it is not. Names such as rotondella or gag viral infection are not valid names, but only interpretations "by ear". As the individual virus has a structure resembling a wheel, scientists called it "Rota", which translated from Latin means "wheel".
"Stomach flu" as it is popularly called, has nothing to do with the influenza virus and is called so because the virus causes irritation in the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx, causing a runny nose and cough.
This is the most common type of intestinal infection, which had everyone by the age of 5-6 years. It can be transmitted anywhere, but most often the infection is oral-fecal path. This means that the virus lives in large numbers in soil, water and environment.
The rotavirus enters the body through dirty food and dirty hands, while bathing in dirty water, poor personal hygiene. It affects the gastrointestinal tract, causing digestive disorders, irritates mucous membranes and may cause dehydration. To correctly identify the causative agent, the clinical analysis by PCR. But first and foremost, it is easy to assume that this infection, as the virus has a number of characteristic properties, as well as the most common.
Rotavirus infection most often found in the offseason. The disease is familiar to many mothers, as up to 3 years this condition affected almost all children. Due to the characteristic signs which usually accompany a cold, this intestinal infection is often called intestinal flu. In addition to the usual lesions of the gastrointestinal tract vomiting and diarrhea, it adds high fever, runny nose, cough.
Symptoms of rotavirus intestinal infection
Both adults and adolescents rotavirus is the main symptom is vomiting. Other symptoms – diarrhea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, lethargy, signs of a cold – possible, but not mandatory. As the virus penetrated into the body very quickly propagated, and the internal wall of the intestine, these organisms act as stimuli, stools may also appear quite quickly. Condition adults and adolescents, as a rule, are not burdened, as the primary infection for the most part they have already passed and the body with virus sign.
Like many other SARS, the disease has a cyclical nature and occurs after an incubation period of acute. Rotavirus followed by frequent and uncontrollable vomiting, after 1-5 days after infection. Unlike other intestinal infections, vomiting is a characteristic symptom that is rotavirus. Diarrhea occurs a few hours after development of first symptoms and at first it may look like gray-yellow and klinoobraznyj chair. The acute phase lasts an average week. The patient, in addition to symptoms of gastrointestinal tract, pain in the throat, during the inspection, you can see the redness and slight inflammation of the throat. Characterized by lack of appetite, lack of energy, increasing the temperature. The peak incidence of this virus falls on the eve of a flu epidemic.
As the feces from the disease lose pigment and become light and urine if dehydration becomes, conversely, a dark shade then the rotavirus may be confused with hepatitis in which the stool becomes white, and dark urine. In this case, to correctly diagnose the disease the presence or absence of signs of intestinal infection.
The most common and dangerous symptom of rotavirus is dehydration, which occurs most often as a complication of this disease. A deadly consequence should be warned at an early stage. Gastric juice in adults and adolescents has a higher acidity in comparison with children, this factor influences what infection they are less pronounced. Moreover, the prevalence of the virus has made him familiar to every person since childhood, and had been ill once a certain strain, the person hasimmunity to it.
Rotavirus infection in children is more evident. If people have formed immunity to the disease is often mild or completely asymptomatic, children's reaction to the pathogen difficult. Primary infection occurs at the age from six months to 2 years. The symptoms are the most severe because the primary infection is the most dangerous. The latent period of the disease is 2-3 days, but the first signs of rotavirus in children breast-feeding or lactose differ in that begin early, as the lactose contained in milk significantly accelerates the development of the disease. Resisting pathogenic microorganisms, the stomach is to remove them with the help of frequent vomiting.
Common symptoms of rotavirus infection:
- At first, may have a fever and runny nose begin. These symptoms begin at the same time or immediately after the first mushy chair.
- Then begin the symptoms of General intoxication with nausea, lethargy, moods, lack of appetite.
- In the future, the first cold symptoms partially or completely disappear, and gastrointestinal disorders aggravated: vomiting and (or) diarrhea occur regularly, there is a dryness of the skin, which characterizes the start of dehydration.
According to statistics, every year a few percent of people infected with rotavirus die. This occurs most often from dehydration. Dangerous symptoms may develop within 3 hours and should be removed immediately. So, if the child has no urine for a long time, rare urine is darker than normal, it's time to sound the alarm. In children, the inventory of fluid in the body are not great, and therefore, dehydration is especially dangerous for them. The main impact dehydration has on the lungs. Symptoms of dehydration:
- dry mouth, dry tongue;
- sunken eyes, lack of tears, sweat;
- the lack of urination for more than 3 hours;
- convulsions, loss of consciousness, pneumonia.
The symptoms of rotavirus in children under years accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea to a greater extent than older children and adults. This is due to immature immunity, low acidity, typical for the child's stomach, and the unwillingness of the body to such infections. Therefore, young children should be protected especially carefully. If infection occurs, the child will start vomiting, repeated every 1-2 hours. Together with a high temperature this may be the only symptoms in the first stage. Diarrhea occurs immediately after the first symptoms. In some cases, the development of the disease even without diarrhea.
Treating rotavirus at home in children
At the first suspicion of an intestinal infection, parents need an early identification of the pathogen, to prevent the development of dangerous for life bacterial and viral infections, such as diphtheria, cholera, staph and other diseases which are treated strictly in the hospital.
If you do not want to go to the hospital to do the necessary analysis, you can go to any clinic (including the state), where do the rapid test for the causative agent of rotavirus according to the materials of the biomaterial of the sick person (from feces).
Upon confirmation of the disease and only if there are no symptoms of dehydration can be treated at home with vigilant supervision by parents and on their full responsibility.
To treat rotavirus in children by yourself, you need to know the required regulations for the control of intestinal diseases, the basic knowledge and the difference of pathogens. It is impossible in any case to treat viral intestinal infection with antibiotics is a virus, antibiotic therapy is not valid, and the weakening of potent drugs can exacerbate the disease pattern.
Algorithm of actions:
- It is necessary to provide the child with peace and quiet. It is now important to more sleep, because during sleep the body is restored.
- The fluid should be ingested on a regular basis but not too large portions, not to provoke the gag reflex. Child 1 year of life need with a syringe without a needle to inject a few milliliters of drinking water every 10-15 minutes. Child 2 years and older, if he has already learned to drink on their own, the need to offer to do it.
- In case of intestinal infection the child together with liquid loses valuable salts and trace elements essential to man. Therefore, it is necessary to accept funds for oral rehydration. At high fluid loss should be promptly fill in aqueous-alkaline balance of the mineral water and special preparations, which are sold in the pharmacy – for example, regidron. If no special means to restore the loss of salts and minerals can help homemade solution: per liter of water 2 tablespoons of sugar, teaspoon of salt and a spoon of salt.
- Of the drugs in the hospital when the diagnosis of rotavirus infection using enterofuril is an antibiotic broad-spectrum. Not being able to suppress the virus, this drug may be preventative in the fight against complications. Without passing through the walls of blood vessels, it stays in the digestive tract that narrows the range of action of the drug only on the digestive system. According to the who, antibiotics for intestinal infections are shownonly when lamblia, cholera and suspected and bloody diarrhea.
- Antiviral drugs that you can use children, for the most part are homeopathic. This group of medications, which activates the production of human interferon. From negotioations therapy is used cycloferon, which also contributes to the increase of interferon in the body – as a necessary condition for suppression of the virus. In the instructions to the cycloferon specified lower age limit of 4 years, but this warning refers to the ability of the swallowing reflex in a child, and not hazardous or carcinogenic compound. Thus, this drug is to treat only when you are sure that the child can swallow a small pill without the risk of choking her.
- The obligatory stage of treatment is to help the intestines Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria. Istexas vomiting and diarrhea, the intestine suffers from dysfunction, and the leaching of beneficial bacteria threatens to disrupt the entire system of digestion and removal of food. For normalization of microflora can drink regularly according to the instructions of such drugs as normoblast or Acipol – they are created specifically for children.
- Chelators need to waste products, viruses and other toxins are poison the body and does not worsen the overall condition. These include activated carbon, smectite, enterosgel and other drugs. Children 5 years and younger prescribed smectite as the most sensitive drug. You can enter also by using a syringe without a needle, pre-diluted with water according to instructions.
- Don't forget that during viral infections interferon is produced owing to high temperature. Therefore, if the child is prone to seizures and is resistant to high temperature, the doctors to knock it is not recommended to the level of 38.5.
- Proper nutrition during the rotavirus, which should eliminate those products that are not compatible with the virus and can aggravate the disease.
- Frequent vomiting one year old child sometimes use candles from vomiting, which does not confirmed effectiveness by who, which recommends that only funds oral rehydration. And candles from vomiting is permissible to take only after consultation with your doctor.
Thus, the main treatment is timely watering of the child and to provide him with adequate therapy in the form of antiviral and symptomatic drugs.
Treatment of rotavirus infection in adults
Without incurring serious consequences and in most cases, a leaking low or even asymptomatic infection with rotavirus in adults, is rarely accompanied by pronounced clinical picture. The reason for this has already described the process of Dating of the body with one of the strains of the virus, which had the case almost every person in early childhood. But is produced whether the immunity in rotavirus? The problem is that the virus mutates endlessly – just like the flu or another SARS – adapting to new conditions and getting used to hostile for the virus situation. This means that further infection can still occur provided that the body will encounter a strain that's never been sick.
Secondary and subsequent infection with rotavirus, the body carries much lighter than the first – taking place quite early in childhood.
Therefore, this disease is much more urgent for children, not adults, they have a really heavy infestation, accompanied by various consequences, if not in time to stop its development.
Treatment of rotavirus infection in adults and adolescents is symptomatic and includes General recommendations – the adoption of means for oral rehydration, which adults can choose a more efficient – for example, Polisorb to replenish the water and salt balance, lost along with the fluid by vomiting or diarrhea. For adults, it is also essential to prevent dehydration, although unlike children reserves of liquids in their body much more, and so restore their not so hard – not enough to start the disease.
Antiviral agent ingavirin is contraindicated to children and persons under 18 years of age. Adults sometimes use it to help in the fight against disease, although this drug is indicated for respiratory viral infections. It inhibits the multiplication of virus particles and enhances interferon production by leukocytes.
Diet during rotavirus infection
The disease is largely facilitated by proper nutrition, which for intestinal infections is especially important. Meat and dairy food exacerbates the condition. Therefore it is best if the food is vegan. It is recommended to continue feeding children familiar to the disease, if there is a risk of exhaustion. In all other cases, the applicable special diet that will help you quickly and easily cope with the disease.
Inflammation of the intestines caused by rotavirus, reduces the activity of the enzyme lactase which breaks down lactose contained in milk and dairy products. Based on the fact that at the time of the progress of the disease this enzyme is almost not working, developed a lactose-free diet:
- In the treatment of children, breastfeeding, replace their food for lactose-freemixture.
- Instead of meat and dairy products with soya substitutes. Later, when the symptoms will fade away, to the diet, you can add dairy products.
- In the early days, you can choose buckwheat or other cereal in water, a dish of vegetables that do not cause fermentation.
- Along with milk, the undesirable consumption of apples, grapes, cabbage and other foods which cause fermentation.
Recommended food in days of illness and for weeks after its completion:
- crumbs of white bread;
- compote of dried fruits;
- porridge of any large water;
- steamed pumpkin, potato, zucchini, cauliflower, carrots.
After recovery, the enzymes remain some time weakened, it is recommended to save the diet for another 2 weeks after the improvement and to exclude from a diet meat and dairy products. With the exception of dairy products that with caution we can start to take after remission.
The prevention of rotavirus infection in children
The prevalence of this disease is wide in all countries, regardless of development and prosperity. In Russia this disease once in my life met every resident of the country for 6-7 years. The prevention of rotavirus infection in children is mainly in the vaccination of the population.
The rotavirus vaccine there are two types: the first protects against the most common strain, the second protects against five more rare strains. Vaccination against the main virus is most common and takes place in two stages with an interval of not less than 40 days.
But the vaccine is effective, only if there was no primary infection, which often occurs with six months of life.
Rotavirus infection has many strains and infection of one of them does not exclude that in the future will not happen disease. The first infection is especially dangerous and is with pronounced symptoms, you may also experience the symptoms aggravating factors. However, after the experience of the body with one of the strains of rotavirus all the subsequent diseases they have sufficiently smoothed the clinic and in the future may not have symptoms.
Rotavirus infection is the most common intestinal infection, which is found in all corners of the world. But we should not be afraid to sound the alarm ahead of time. Need only to explore possible problem, not to make unnecessary movements, and when a child will appear the first symptoms. To give first aid correctly and not to hurt people today most well-read mom.
In sharp minutes, sometimes emotions get the upper hand and can take wrong steps that will only hurt. Remember that antibiotics is justified only in three cases – when there is a suspected cholera when there is a suspicion of giardiasis and when there is bloody diarrhea. In the vast majority of cases of intestinal infection is treated without any medications, and possible therapy is only complementary. A necessary – sufficient drinking water, and the solution regidrona. These are the who recommendations.
Additionally it is worth noting that high temperatures can aggravate dehydration, so if there is such a risk, it is better to hit it as early as possible.
Each successive infection produces immunity to a specific type of virus that enables the transfer of subsequent infection in a mild form. When an adult gets infected by the virus, he may not even notice the symptoms and this makes him dangerous to others as a potential infestor. Therefore, even if discovered a small intestinal disorder, you should stay at home or to make an Express test for rotavirus before visiting large groups. If in a confined space there is contact with an infected person, the risk of others becoming infected with rotavirus is very high.