How long is rotavirus infection in children and adults
Rotavirus infection is an infectious illness type foodborne illness, which is caused by a specific RNA virus. Microorganism colonized and multiplies only in the cells of the mucosa of the small intestine. Therefore, the disease is characterized by symptoms of gastroenteritis. In the majority of cases of sick children from 8 months to 2 years. The older the child, the less chance of infection. Leaking disease can differently, so parents interested in the question how long is rotavirus infection in children. In adults the symptoms of the disease blurred, so it is rarely diagnosed.
How is the infection
For infection the typical epidemiological outbreaks, when cases of fixation of multiple diseases. This is due to the peculiarity of the virus to remain persistent in the environment. At room temperature in the household the causative agent retains its activity during 30 days.
In water and alkaline liquid rotavirus viable 2 months, in the feces up to six months. An acidic environment is not harmful to the microorganism, it is also poorly exposed disinfected. Is killed only when exposed to high temperatures above 80°C.
The mechanism of transmission contact-household, way of transmission – alimentary, from an infected person through everyday objects, dirty hands, toys. The greatest risk of infection-prone children with low immunity, premature and underweight babies.
The duration of the incubation period of rotavirus is an average of from 2 to 5 days. Sometimes the symptoms are already evident the first day. The first signs of rotavirus intestinal infection in adulthood may develop a few hours after the infection, or, conversely, a long time to manifest itself, the incubation period lasts 7-10 days.
The beginning of the development of the disease, the first symptoms
The onset is acute. The first symptoms of gastroenteritis:
- nausea, loss of appetite, heartburn;
- vomiting, as a rule, single;
- the constant diarrhea is the main symptom of rotavirus infection;
- bloating, pain in the epigastric region, the fermentation processes in the intestine.
Vomiting due to rotavirus in a child is 1 day. It precedes the appearance of a profuse diarrhea. The temperature increase is not observed, sometimes the numbers reach to 37.3°. The child is lethargic, inactive, refuses food, trouble sleeping. Kids are fussy, crying for no reason. In some cases, the children are restless and fussy, which is a sign of abdominal discomfort.
Then attaches diarrhea. A distinctive feature of the chair is that it is very thin, watery, frequent. Can get just yellow liquid.
When rotavirus is never blood in the stool. If this symptom is discovered, it speaks of the threat of bacterial infection.
Diarrhea, when rotavirus in a child lasts an average of 3-4 days, provided that all this victim child provide appropriate therapeutic services. This period may be extended if the child is weakened, and his body severely dehydrated.
Infants on the background of a sharp loss of fluid symptoms defeat of the Central nervous system is poorly coordinated movements, muscle cramps, spasms of the respiratory tract. This contributes to the high concentration of toxins in the blood. This condition is extremely dangerous for young children because at any moment can lead to respiratory failure.
Symptoms of dehydration in babies:
- crying without tears;
- dry skin, mucous membranes, tongue;
- absence of urine for more than 3 hours.
The duration of illness, complications
Rotavirus intestinal infection lasts different. Its duration is affected by several factors:
- the age of the patient;
- General health, presence of chronic diseases of internal organs;
- timely proper medical care;
- the development of complications of the disease.
In adults the disease is much easier than in children. This is due to the fact that the organism is adapted to the external stimuli. Adults are often given special attention to developing diarrhea, blaming his condition for taking a heavy meal. Without treatment, the symptoms may pass on their own in 2-3 days.
Intestinal infection in children lasts approximately one week. If you avoid dehydration of the child, the disease can cure yourself at home. Toddlers to 3 years hospitalitynet all without exception.
In children with inadequate treatment often develop complications. The most common is a loss of fluid. As a consequence of dehydration in the baby's body increases the concentration of toxins, which hampers the kidneys and poisons the nervous system. Due to the lack of water the blood becomes thick, the lungs do not do their job.
- digestive disorders – heartburn, burping, babies reflux (reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus);
- pyelonephritis (infectious inflammation of the renal pelvis), in severe cases, stop the kidney;
- pneumonia – inflammation of the lungs, is found in 100% of cases in children with dehydration;
- disorders of the nervous system – convulsions, spasmthe trachea and bronchi in severe cases, respiratory arrest.
If after intestinal infection is diarrhea for a long time, it may indicate that a serious communicable disease such as cholera. Its main symptoms are similar to rotavirus – vomiting, watery diarrhea, dehydration.
Treatment, recovery and relapse
Acquired immunity from rotavirus infection no. There are specific vaccines that are used twice every month. Vaccination in age from 4 to 8 months. In older age it is not effective.
A sick person is a danger to others. Therefore, people with poor health it is better to avoid contact with a sick person. The risk of infection lasts about a month.
With the satisfactory course of the disease without complications, full recovery occurs within 10 days.
The main method of treatment of rotavirus infection – a constant struggle with dehydration. The amount of fluid intake (per day):
- children up to 2 years – from 800 ml to 1 l;
- children from 2 to 7 years – 1.5 l;
- children from 8 to 14 years – 2 years;
- teenagers and adults – not less than 3 L.
If the body does not get enough fluid, the patient hospitalityat and carry out rehydration therapy is intravenous infusion of saline (Trisol, solution of ringer-Locke, glucose, saline).
How to reduce the risk of infection of the body? It is enough to observe simple rules:
- to observe personal hygiene (washing hands after walking on the street, going to the bathroom, trips to public transport);
- avoid contact with the sick person;
- do not consume spoiled or suspicious food, water;
- timely vaccinated infants.
Rotavirus infection is a common disease. According to who statistics, every year in the world it strikes 125 million children. If parents know the symptoms, development and duration of the disease, they will be able to assist the child to avoid hospitalization and complications.