Complications and consequences of rotavirus in children and adults
Rotavirus infection is one of the most contagious and common diseases among young children. Adults, even those who have had this disease in childhood, too, is not immune to the flu, but usually carry it easier. If one of the household picked up a viral infection, usually get infected by it and others – all because neither disinfection nor boiling does not kill rotavirus. It feels great in any environment and in any weather conditions. Manifest themselves whether the consequences of rotavirus, will depend on how timely the patient received adequate treatment.
The consequences of rotavirus
The disease develops rapidly, and its acute phase lasts up to 5 days. At first one may not recognize that it is rotavirus, so as a frequent liquid chair, vomiting, and fever are symptoms of many diseases. Thus, it is possible to lose the time and the stomach flu, like any other, in this case is fraught with complications. Among the most dangerous States we can distinguish the following consequences:
- dehydration (exsicosis). As rotavirus infection occurs rapidly, persistent vomiting, diarrhea and high temperature, especially the baby, very quickly eliminate fluid from the body, which can lead to dysfunction of vital organs and death;
- dysbacteriosis. Incorrect or delayed treatment can face the fact that the intestine is populated by pathogenic flora, but weakened from the infection and medication the body does not have enough natural resources to displace;
- decrease in immunity. After recovery are significantly reduced restorative capacity of the immune system. The weakened body could not resist viruses, so there is a risk of getting rotavirus again or constantly suffer from respiratory infections.
At first glance, the mortality rate among children is low – only 3%. However, cases are mainly children under the age of four years, which is especially problematic.
One of the most dangerous consequences of rotavirus infection in children is intestinal exsicosis. This syndrome develops as a result of continuous vomiting and diarrhea. The body breaks down the water-salt balance and the deficit of electrolytes.
Normally dehydration does not occur with lightning speed, however in case of intestinal flu, there is not only a liquid chair and vomiting, but also fever, so fluid is lost much more rapidly. For this reason, the patient may die, but the main risk group is formed by children under one year old.
The first signs of exsicosis is dry lips and skin. After comes the more severe condition, namely:
- high temperature not straying antipyretic drugs;
- dark urine is released in small amounts;
- renal dysfunction that leads to acute renal failure;
- disorders of the heart.
The last two symptoms can lead to kidney failure, then because of severe intoxication, a person can fall into a coma and die.
When the first symptoms of dehydration in infants is urgently needed to call an ambulance. Acute renal failure is treated only in hospital, but even the appropriate equipment does not guarantee a quick recovery. The diagnosis is difficult, as the symptoms of rotavirus are similar to the symptoms of other serious infectious diseases of the digestive tract: dysentery, cholera, salmonellosis. He put only on the basis of analysis of feces. Pathological processes that are a consequence of dehydration are:
- no water flow to your bloodstream, so the blood thickens. The heart becomes hard to pump thick blood through the arteries and blood vessels and the rhythm begins to stray;
- nervous disorders, delirium, lethargy and lack of sleep occurring against a background of shortage of supply of nerve cells with glucose;
- the food is not digested and can not digest, which leads to stretching of the stomach;
- because of the lack of nourishment of brain cells appear hallucinations and fainting, which is preceded by coma;
- a strong decrease in immunity leads to infections of respiratory and intestinal infections.
To be treated independently in any case be in the hospital for a kid or an adult, as a rule, are administered intravenously injections of water and saline solutions to replace fluids lost in the body. If the kidneys do not remove toxins, they enter the blood and poison all the organs and tissues, so the patient need to be connected a special apparatus for hemodialysis and detoxification that you cannot do at home.
To avoid such severe consequences of rotavirus, such as dehydration, when the first symptoms should drink at least two liters of water per day in small portions, in order not further to provoke diarrhea and vomiting. To eliminate dehydration are usually prescribed drugs that restore the water-salt balance, for example, regidron. With regard to complications of rotavirus infection in children, if the child's condition is stable and satisfactory, it is recommended that as often as possible to make itto the breast, as breast milk is nourishing and disinfecting. In addition, it nourishes the baby's body fluids, and calms him down.
This unpleasant consequence of rotavirus as dysbiosis, can result from incorrect or delayed therapy, which pathogenic bacteria and drugs violated the natural intestinal flora. Especially affects small children under one year, since the useful microorganisms is still not fully settled in their digestive tract. Therefore, rotavirus infection is able to disrupt the metabolism of the child for a long time.
Symptoms and course
The symptoms of this serious consequences are the following:
- alkalinisation of the microflora, which leads to the death of good bacteria;
- persistent dyspepsia: bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea;
- the heterogeneity of faeces: presence of undigested pieces of food, mucus, lumps.
The patient no longer stand out some digestive enzymes, are not absorbed nutrients and trace elements. Bifidobacteria are dying, and pathogenic flora multiplies at lightning pace. Persistent diarrhea threatens the development of irritable bowel syndrome, the appearance of gastritis, colitis. Vitamin a deficiency leads to gum disease, brittle hair and nails, nervous disorders. In the body there is a lack of iron leads to decreased hemoglobin and anemia.
Treatment of dysbacteriosis is difficult and long process. Undergoing the rotavirus administered prebiotics and probiotics and constantly monitor the state of the microflora. The patient should observe a special diet, in which there is a sufficient number of dairy products such as cheese, cheese, yogurt. Vegetables and fruits raw are appointed with care, basically everything should be heat treatment, so as not to undermine the intestine even more. Oat and rice porridge improve digestion and are digested quickly, so their presence in the diet is necessary.
To avoid such consequences of rotavirus infection in adults and children as dysbiosis, in the treatment of a rotavirus patient immediately prescribe drugs aimed at maintaining the natural microflora containing lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.
What threatens the absence of adequate treatment
If not treated goiter, it could face the following complications:
- the appearance of ulcers and ulcers on the skin;
- chronic inflammation of the rectum;
- persistent sores;
- accession fungal infections and frequent cold sore;
- severe common cold.
Reaction of the immune system
After rotavirus infection antibodies are produced in insufficient quantities, so catch it again in a couple of weeks is very simple, especially a small child. Complications of rotavirus infection in adults are less frequent. Many do not become infected with rotavirus, which suggests that either the disease is asymptomatic or the person has developed immunity as a result of many times of infections. At risk of re-infection are children under six years of age, and older children have repeatedly been detected antibodies to the bacteria of the genus Rotavirus.
To avoid undesirable consequences, in the first month after the disease need to protect the child from contact with patients and try to improve its resistance to viruses using vitamin complexes, nutrition and active lifestyles.
The consequences of rotavirus is quite serious and can cause a lot of problems. Though the stomach flu is highly contagious and preventive measures are not very effective, do not forget about hygiene, hand disinfection and washing vegetables and fruits before their use. If infection has occurred, remember that timely access to a doctor – the key to a quick recovery.