Vaccination against rotavirus: when should I get vaccinated
Fever, vomiting, diarrhea – these symptoms can be signs of rotavirus infection, a dangerous disease that can cause dehydration. Most often, the infection occurs in children up to 5 years, however, the most vulnerable children the first year of life. Vaccination against rotavirus is not mandatory, but will help to avoid the unpleasant consequences of disease.
What is rotavirus
Rotavirus in adults is much easier than in children. According to statistics 1 out of 300 cases of infection the disease can be fatal. Contracting the disease can food and airborne routes, and by contact with infected people.
The beginning of the infection, usually acute, followed by frequent (up to 10 times per day) watery diarrhea, which can trigger lack of electrolytes. In addition, some patients have inadequate blood circulation, and also delay the synthesis of urine.
The peak incidence occurs in winter and spring.
Complications of disease can become:
- the weakening of the immune system;
- infection secondary infection;
- severe intoxication, accompanied by dehydration;
- inflammatory processes in the intestines, ulcers;
- the disruption of the heart and blood vessels.
Due to the strong fluid loss may develop renal dysfunction.
It is established that the infection rotavirus infection does not affect the social conditions of the patient and personal hygiene. Infection occurs most often in hospitals, where carefully observed hygienic rules. To protect the baby from infection will help vaccination against rotavirus.
The need for vaccination
Introduction in the organism of antigenic material from rotavirus infection included in the immunization schedules in many countries. In the Russian Federation does not provide for mandatory vaccination against the virus, but this vaccine has a number of positive aspects:
- Vaccination is the only way to avoid infection. To fully protect a child from exposure is not possible: the virus is fairly resistant to boiling alkali and chlorine.
- The causative agent can be located anywhere: in shop, hospital, any public place and even on the street, so to defend against it hard enough.
- Having developed immunity to the virus, you can significantly reduce the number of infection – up to 85%, and the probability of a lethal outcome in a reduction of 60%.
- Medications used for grafting, do not cause reactions in kids, so the risk of negative consequences is minimized.
- The vaccine against rotavirus is taken orally, therefore, does not cause complications in premature infants and in newborns with SCID.
Thus, private clinics and medical centres vaccination can inoculate everyone.
Advantages of the used drugs are their oral administration and the absence of any painful sensations. Most often, the need to do a shot of your baby causes parents to refuse to vaccinate.
Complications after vaccination
The vast majority of cases, children can easily tolerate the vaccine. However, occasionally it may be an allergic reaction to used drugs, excessive anxiety, gag reflex or diarrhea. Such phenomena often occur during the first weeks after grafting.
Only in one case out of 100 thousand is caused intussusception of the colon – pathology requiring prompt surgical intervention.
How to avoid complications
Vaccination against rotavirus does not cause in the child's body any negative effects. The baby easily tolerated vaccine, and to prevent possible complications, should be considered contraindications.
Vaccinations do not in the following cases:
- if the child has hypersensitivity to the components of medication, for example, contained in the vaccine a dry latex;
- when a strong reaction to the initial dose of the drug;
- in congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal system;
- in the presence of HIV infection;
- during severe diarrhea or vomiting;
- if you have a fructose intolerance;
- if you previously were diagnosed with intussusception of the intestine.
Furthermore, vaccination is contraindicated during exacerbation of certain diseases, however, may be a mild cold.
A vaccine against rotavirus infections in children rarely causes intense side effects. To facilitate the state during the period of postvaccinal baby can be given febrifuge. At strongly expressed symptoms should show the baby the doctor.
Whether or not to vaccinate
Contracting the disease is very simple: the infected person excrete virus for a couple of days before the first signs of the disease, and 60 days after recovery.
Rotavirus is stable at low moisture and easy to tolerate disinfectants and cleaning agents. To catch the virus several times: immunity to infection produced by only one type of disease. Making a vaccine, you can get protection against many serotypes of the virus.
Usually by age fivethe kid is sick with rotavirus twice, and then his immune system becomes resistant to it. That is why many parents Express doubts about the necessity of vaccination. The decision about vaccination should be taken considering many factors, including the overall health of the child.
Types of drugs
The drugs that are used in the vaccination against rotavirus, aimed at the facilitation of the disease after infection. Currently, there are two types of drugs:
- The rotavirus vaccine "RotaTeq", made in the USA. The tool includes the 5 serotypes of the virus, and can be used in premature infants. The grafting is carried out from 1.5 to 3 months of baby's life, in three stages. The drug is taken orally through the mouth.
- The "Rotarix" produced in Belgium. Allowed to eat the children of the sixth week of life. The agent is administered into the body orally. It can be combined with other vaccines such as polio. Gives best result when used in the first six months of life.
Immunity is formed immediately after application of the first dose of the remedy. After the second vaccination, the child has a resistance to the virus.
Vaccines are allowed to be used in conjunction with other vaccines, except BCG.
The grafting is carried out 2 or 3 times, depending on the type of drug. Standard scheme involves the introduction of the vaccine in roughly the following periods:
- "Rotarix" is used in 6 weeks and 4 months;
- "RotaTeq" is administered in 4 weeks, 4 months and 6 months.
The interval between vaccinations must be no less than 1 month.
The vaccine is administered by oral route 1 drop. Intravenous use of drugs is prohibited. The whole procedure should be monitored by your doctor. With the appearance of vomiting, the specialist can make the decision about re-dosing.
Preparing for vaccination
Special preparation for vaccination against rotavirus is not required, but all parents should be aware of the following rules:
- an inoculation do only healthy babies;
- before administration of the drug must pass the blood test, urine and feces, to be examined by a pediatrician to obtain a permit;
- before vaccination and after it the adults should strengthen hygiene measures, as the probability of infection with rotavirus after vaccination in the nearest time is greatly increased.
You should not vaccinate a child if he experience the following symptoms:
- increased temperature from 37°C, and more;
- disorder of the digestive system – diarrhea, vomiting;
- colds and viral diseases.
Use vaccine virus is not allowed. However, if the parents bought the drug and decided on its independent use, they need to learn about methods of transport and storage.
Improper execution of the rules may result in loss of efficiency means, and also to increase the likelihood of adverse effects and complications.
Rotavirus infection, which is especially difficult for younger children, and in premature and debilitated infants. In addition, the disease can cause severe consequences, serious intestinal disorders, dehydration, which is often the cause of death. Therefore, every parent needs to know about the ways to prevent complications of the disease and timely vaccination.