Toxic nephropathy: symptoms, causes, treatment
In severe poisoning and severe intoxication affects all internal organs, but in some cases are more likely to suffer kidneys. Toxic substances that do not dissolve in water, are deposited on the walls of these organs, resulting in the development of toxic nephropathy. In this disease the person needs urgent treatment, as there can be such serious complications as kidney failure.
Characteristics of the disease
Nephropathy is the toxic kidney disease, which can be triggered by various substances nephrotoxic character. There are several degrees of course of the disease:
- Easy – in this disease the symptoms are mild, although in the analysis of blood and urine is already possible to notice abnormal changes;
- The average degree is in this for the symptoms are more pronounced, urine output decreased, and uremia increases;
- Heavy degree – in this course of the disease reduced glomerular filtration, edema. In severe greater the chance of developing kidney failure.
To provoke this disease can a variety of factors, including diabetes. In addition, to cause nephropathy can and infectious diseases.
Quite often, toxic nephropathy develops in mushroom poisoning, there may be complications in the form of kidney failure.
The causes of the disease
Kidney is a paired organ, similar to the form of beans, which performs the following functions:
- regulate fluid balance in the body;
- monitor and maintain proper levels of blood pressure;
- participate in the formation of blood cells;
- output products of metabolism from the body.
Each kidney is composed of many nephrons are special particle filtration. Each nephron consists of a ball of small blood vessels, they are partially permeable, so through them, as through a membrane, are products of metabolism. Well-filtered metabolic products are excreted along with the urine.
If the body penetrates poisonous substances, then the entire burden falls on the nephrons that's getting hard to cope with its function. The clinical picture depends on what poisonous substance entered the body.
Reasons for toxic nephropathy can be attributed to the following factors:
- poisoning with poor-quality alcohol-containing beverages;
- heavy metal poisoning;
- exposure to various solvents;
- intoxication caused by pesticides;
- overdose of drugs and treatment of expired or substandard medicines.
If the power of the kidneys is insufficient, it may lead to ischemia, which is considered a reversible condition. If ischemia for a long time not treated, there is necrosis, which is irreversible pathology. This condition is characterized by complete impairment of renal function, due to which the body is the accumulation of toxic substances and they do not appear naturally.
Toxic nephropathy requires immediate treatment, otherwise you may experience life-threatening complications.
Symptoms of the disease
Symptoms toxic nephropathy and the severity of illness can vary significantly. Quite often more pronounced are symptoms of an entirely different disease, kidney failure, and glomerulonephritis. Signs of nephropathy can be considered such health disorders:
- stable high blood pressure;
- oliguria or anuria;
- swelling of the face;
- pain in the lumbar region;
- delay urination for more than 4 hours;
Depending on the severity of the disease can join and accompanying symptoms. Symptoms were observed from the first days of toxic kidney damage and gradually increases.
The most feared complication of nephropathy is considered the renal failure. In this case, kidney function is completely broken and the bodies practically do not work. For this pathology all poisonous substances linger in the blood, due to this there is a strong intoxication. If the patient does not start immediately treated, it may develop uremic coma, which is characterized by lethargy, weakness, headache and a characteristic skin rash.
Toxic kidney damage swelling initially appear on the face, so skip this pathology difficult.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis of this disease is carried out exclusively within the walls of the hospital, as well as treatment. For diagnosis use such methods of examination:
- Doing a detailed analysis of blood and urine.
- Consider diuresis and water balance in the body.
- An ultrasound examination of the kidneys.
- In severe cases, can be scheduled for MRI.
Be sure to assign biochemical analysis of blood which shows a full picture of the work of the kidneys. If necessary, the patient may be referred for further diagnosis to specialists.
It is very important to diagnose toxic damage and assignthe right treatment, in this case, the risk of complications is greatly reduced.
Features of treatment
Quite often treated with toxic nephropathy in intensive care, especially if the disease is complicated by renal insufficiency. If the disease is not very hard, it is allowed to treat a patient in the urology Department.
During this period the main task is the rapid excretion of toxic substances and metabolic products from the body. For this purpose you can use the following methods:
- lavage of the stomach and intestines;
Forced diuresis is carried out by administering different medications. To efficiently clear toxins from the gastrointestinal tract, it is administered in mineral oil or a large amount of liquid. It can be pure water, weak solution of potassium permanganate or salt water. Hemodialysis is effective only in the first 6 hours from onset of the disease, after that for two days to carry out the cleaning of the blood through the peritoneum.
The patient shown drugs of different pharmaceutical groups. The patient should take the sorbents, diuretics, hormonal drugs, and antihistamines, to avoid the development of severe allergic reactions. In addition, it is shown glucose with vitamin C, insulin, sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride and a complex of essential vitamins.
It should be noted that toxic nephropathy is difficult to treat, because the kidney cells are difficult to restore. The nephrons can start to decay at the earliest stages of the disease. As a result, kidney function is completely broken. Because of this, it is important to start treatment at the first symptoms of the disease.
Toxic nephropathy patient should drink a lot of alkaline drinking. This contributes to the rapid recovery.
Prognosis and possible complications
The prognosis of the disease depends on the toxic substance, which has penetrated the body and also the severity of toxic nephropathy. The number of deaths in this disease are quite impressive and can reach up to 70% of all cases. But this does not mean that almost every poisoned person at risk of death, if timely diagnosis and adequate treatment the prognosis is quite good.
The worst prognosis of nephropathy in that case, if the body consists of such chemicals as cadmium, silicon, and hydrogen arsenate.
Complications often appear with a significant ingestion of toxic substances, and through the blood. The most dangerous complication is kidney failure, which quite often leads to death.
Toxic nephropathy is a dangerous kidney disease, which when not treated leads to various complications. It is worth remembering that the kidney cells are difficult to restore and the earlier treatment is begun, the more favorable the prognosis.