Intoxication of the liver: symptoms, signs, treatment
The main function of the liver is filtering the blood, cleansing it of accumulated toxins, toxic compounds and metabolic products. For poisoning food or vegetable poisons this important internal organ is immediately included in the work of saving human health and life. But when you abuse drugs, alcoholic beverages, narcotics developed liver toxicity. A decrease in the activity of the main filter of the human body can lead to severe irreversible complications.
Pathogenesis of intoxication
The liver is a vital gland of external secretion the person, located in the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. The organ has a huge number of physiological functions:
- Neutralizes foreign substances.
- Regulates carbohydrate metabolism, replenish glycogen stores.
- Takes part in digestion, provides cells and tissues with glucose.
- Synthesizes cholesterol, phospholipids, bile acids, hormones and enzymes.
The process of neutralization of toxic compounds is their chemical transformation, which occurs in several stages. First, a foreign substance is oxidized with the separation of the electrons and is then restored or gidrolizuyutza. The second phase is characterized by the formation of larger metabolite by attaching molecules.
When heavy blood loss the liver is able to build up reserves in the body. By narrowing the private vessels it accumulates biological fluid, helping the person to recover quickly.
Once inside the body, toxic compounds bind specific proteins of the liver into metabolites, which are excreted with the feces and urine. But if the quantity of hazardous substances exceeds the norm or attack the glands poisons continues for a considerable time, the functional activity of the liver is greatly reduced.
When elevated levels of toxins , medical intervention is carried out using detoxification treatments – plasmapheresis or hemodialysis. Also of great importance to the forthcoming treatment is a form of hepatic intoxication:
- The acute phase of intoxication. Occurs when entering hepatiti a large number of harmful compounds. Iron loses the ability to filtering blood, an increase in the content of degradation products of metabolism, ammonia, toxic substances. Molecular oxygen is firmly bound, is not supplied to the cells of the brain. Is the disorder of all vital systems of the body.
- Chronic stage of intoxication. Is characterized by gradual accumulation of poisons in the structural elements of the liver. Symptoms increases gradually, and the pathology is diagnosed by chance in identifying other diseases. The lack of treatment leads to acute liver failure or cirrhosis. Often patients require transplantation of a donor organ.
Chronic liver toxicity often develops in people with malignant tumors suffering from systemic diseases. To maintain health, they are forced to take a large number of pharmacological drugs of chemotherapy or maintain vital functions.
Dangerous toxins to liver cells
Toxic poisoning of the liver can be triggered by a huge number of harmful substances of exogenous or endogenous nature. They penetrate into human body by inhalation of toxic fumes or gases through the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract. Here are the most common compounds contributing to the damage gepatitov:
- ethyl alcohol of any strength;
- pharmacological drugs;
- poisons of plant and animal origin;
- chemical compounds (alkali, acids, heavy metal salts).
Many remedies for cleaning the surface of toilets or bath consists of oxalic acid and (or) ammonia. Dizziness or indigestion almost nobody connects with regular cleaning in an unventilated room. Hazardous substances accumulate in liver cells if inhaled, they penetrate through the skin.
In order to select the optimal detoxication therapy, specialists find out the way of damage gepatitov toxic compounds. Intoxication occurs in one of these ways:
- The toxins that cause specific damage to liver cells. After penetration into the bloodstream chemical compounds act directly on the liver, disrupting its functional activity. The strongest deformation is subjected to the third liver area, located near the portal vein. The degree of necrosis was not affected by the number of toxic compounds, the main factor is the genetic predisposition of an organism to a particular type of poison. These toxins destroy not only capacity, but also the structural elements of the kidneys, causing acute or chronic renal failure.
- Toxins that cause nonspecific damage to the liver cells. After penetration of the poison into the body decreases blood flow to small blood vessels. Nutrients and molecular oxygen cease to flow to hepaticum, causing their gradualdeath. From killed cells of the first zone – it is located near the hepatic veins. In addition to the irreversible damage to the liver, diagnosed strain of the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum.
Food poisoning with poor-quality products possible accession of a bacterial infection. Pathogens begin to proliferate, releasing the metabolites into the environment. In addition to the elimination of toxic substances, the liver filters the blood of bacteria.
Causes of liver intoxication
There is a certain selectivity of people to types of toxic compounds. If one person long-term use of serious pharmacologic drug does not cause symptoms of liver damage, then the other, even the double reception causing pulling pain in my side. The immune status is also an important factor in a complete filtration and excretion of toxins from the body. Intoxication occurs in the following cases:
- in patients with diseases of the endocrine system in imbalance of lipid metabolism;
- the presence of excess weight combined with weakened muscles, low muscle mass;
- elderly and senile age;
- adverse environmental conditions, working in hazardous industrial production;
- chronic viral pathology of the liver;
- genetic disorders of the liver;
- the tendency to allergic reactions.
A common cause of hepatic intoxication becomes improper storage of food, neglecting heat treatment, the use of expired food. For the child's body often toxicity be the basis of chronic diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
At risk are people who are passionate about the collection and pickling of mushrooms. Pale toadstool has the strongest destructive effect on capacity. The danger of mushrooms, cooked, without prior heat treatment. Often in this conservation breed spores of the microorganism that triggers the development of botulism – a deadly disease.
Principal of intoxication
Often diagnosed case of liver intoxication is the poisoning drugs. This happens both in the use of pharmacological agents recommended by doctors for the treatment of chronic diseases, and uncontrolled self acceptance. In some cases, medications are appointed for life. The patient regularly delivers biochemical analyses: if signs of intoxication are increasing, doses of the drugs are reduced or they are replaced.
Doctors attributed the frequent cases of drug intoxication with the easy availability of drugs. Commitment to self-diagnosis and self-treatment lead adherents of this direction of therapy / treatment rooms for hemodialysis.
There is the concept of drug-induced hepatitis. To the occurrence of this disease predisposed people, intentionally exceeding the dosage for a quicker recovery. To means that encourage the development of the disease include:
- Sulfonamides broad spectrum.
- Anti-viral drugs.
- Anti-TB drugs.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Acetylsalicylic acid.
- Antibiotics of the first generation.
- Drugs that suppress the appetite.
- Fungicidal drugs.
The liver is capable of long time to accumulate fat-soluble compounds. Prolonged use of anabolic steroids, hormone drugs leads to increase of their concentration in gepatitah, which adversely affects the human health. The difficulty of diagnosis of this intoxication is not pronounced clinical picture.
Alcohol poisoning is the most severe factor that leads to irreversible destruction of liver cells. The abuse of alcoholic beverages contributes to the acceleration of the pathological process causing the cirrhosis is in the last stages of the flow. Acute liver intoxication develops when drinking large amounts of ethanol at a time; often it becomes the cause of death.
The death of liver cells occurs when taking of low-quality alcohol with mixtures of methanol and fusel oils. Even the modern use of detoxification therapy is not able to save man from death.
In addition to the deformation gepatitov, alcohol triggers the following mechanism of destruction:
- under the action of a specific enzyme ethyl alcohol is converted to acetaldehyde;
- chemical compound causes the death of liver cells;
- in gepatitah accumulate excessive amounts of lipid molecules;
- developed fatty degeneration of the liver.
Timely deliverance from bad habits helps to restore the functional activity gepatitov. But chronic abuse takes its toll – violation has already taken irreversible. The former alcoholic is assigned to lifelong replacement therapy.
The symptoms of hepatic intoxication
Doctors subdivide hepatic toxicity on acute and chronic.For acute stage is characterized by the severity of symptoms and rapid progression of the disease. Signs of disease depend on the number of toxins, the duration of their stay in the body:
- Painful spasms in the right upper quadrant.
- Fever, fever, chills.
- Emotional instability, increased nervous tension.
- Spasms of the upper and lower extremities.
- Sweating, cold sweat.
- In joints, headaches.
- Dizziness, disorientation in space, nausea, constant drowsiness, lethargy.
- The lack of appetite, weight loss.
- The yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes.
In acute intoxication quickly develop disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, diarrhea, bloating. A distinctive feature is vomiting, with significant amounts of blood clots.
The lack of treatment or significant necrosis of liver cells leads to chronic forms of the disease. Symptoms of liver intoxication manifested in the recurrence of the pathology:
- hyperthermia of about 37 °C;
- bitter taste in the mouth;
- constant mild pain in the right upper quadrant;
- the appearance of sour burping;
- nausea, flatulence, constipation or diarrhea;
- lethargy, fatigue, insomnia;
- dryness of the skin.
Relapses of chronic intoxication occur in a persistent decrease in the body's resistance to viral or bacterial infections. Eating fatty foods, alcohol, spicy foods triggers painful spasms, increased separation of bile.
Diagnosis and treatment
At external survey it is possible to visually determine the negative state of the patient's liver: yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes characteristic of collapsing gepatitov. The study of history is an important part of the diagnosis. The doctor is interested in cases of liver disease direct relatives, as well as chronic diseases and bad habits of the patient.
If a person takes medicines without doctor appointments, you should inform the doctor-diagnostician. A possible cause may be intoxication poisoning drugs.
Palpation allows to determine the increase of the glands of external secretion, to establish the localization of the pain. Biochemical tests reveal increased concentration of eosinophils, bilirubin, leucocytes in the blood. In the urine contains large amounts of bile pigments and decomposition products of proteins.
To instrumental methods of examination include:
- ultrasound examination;
- computed tomography;
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- examination of the gastrointestinal tract using an endoscope.
For the assessment of liver recommended by histological or cytological examination of samples. If necessary, the patient reviewed svorachivanie blood.
Treatment of hepatic intoxication starts with cleansing the stomach, if necessary, cardiopulmonary resuscitation are carried out:
- Indirect heart massage.
How to remove painful attacks – mandatory introduction detoxification of saline solutions with glucose. At poisoning with drugs, alcohol, food patient is prescribed the acceptance of chelators and adsorbents. Medications restore damaged liver cells, delivering to them the vitamins, minerals. Well established in the treatment of intoxication bile products that help gepatitom to get rid of toxic compounds.
To strengthen the immune system, patients are assigned a course of vitamins with microelements, adjuvants or immunomodulators. Excellent relapse prevention will be proper nutrition, absence of bad habits, exercise therapy. If you have pain in the right upper quadrant should immediately consult a doctor.