Dysentery in children: symptoms, signs and treatment
Dysentery refers to frequent infections of the intestinal bacterial nature, which are diagnosed in children. This is the most common illness among preschoolers. This can be attributed to the fact that children in older age are more attached to hygiene, do not chew on toys and fingers. Of all cases of dysentery the main percentage are children preschoolers. Not to confuse this dangerous disease simple indigestion, parents need to know the basic symptoms of dysentery in children under one year of age. It will help to quickly diagnose and begin the correct treatment.
Ways of infection
Provoke the disease bacteria of the genus Shigella. These pathogens reproduce well in any environment – water, soil, food products, well tolerate the low-temperature regime. These bacteria are sensitive to heat, disinfectants and the influence of the direct rays of the sun. When boiling Shigella are killed within a couple seconds. The source of infection becomes ill child who is contagious from the first day of the disease, as with the faeces released a lot of pathogens. Transmitted infection such ways:
- Fecal-oral. By water when swimming in open water and pools, as well as the consumption of raw water. Food way – by eating poorly washed vegetables or fruit;
- Contact-household – transmitted through kitchen utensils, bedding, toys and household items.
A large number of cases of dysentery registered in summer-autumn period, when eaten a lot of fruit, berries and vegetables. In addition, the warm period promotes the growth of bacteria on food products.
The causes of dysentery
Is called shigellosis four types of Shigellathat were named in honor of the scientists who first discovered them:
The causative agents of dysentery are different in different areas. In Europe the dysentery causing Bacillus sonnei, a little less likely to diagnose flexneri dysentery in children. In the countries of Central Asia and the far East, the disease is caused by Bacillus Grigorieva-Shiga, and takes quite seriously.
Most often, the infection occurs when used raw water, unboiled milk and other products without heat treatment. The risk of infection occurs by eating poorly washed vegetables, fruit and berries. The disease is often diagnosed during the period of ripening strawberries, raspberries and grapes, and some adults do not wash their melons before offering them to baby.
If the patient Shigella didn't wash my hands after using the bathroom, he hands carries pathogen on all of the items they touched. Dysentery in children will occur, if the child will get infected household items, and then pull hands in a mouth.
The susceptibility of children to dysentery is very large, regardless of age. But most cases are diagnosed before the age of 3 years. Aggravating factors can be artificial feeding of the newborn, hypovitaminosis, diseases of the digestive organs and unsanitary housing.
General characteristics of the disease
Only Shigella Grigorieva-Shiga produce toxins in the bloodstream while still alive, other pathogens secrete toxic substances in the death. Immunity after suffering dysentery remains, you can re-hurt for life more than once.
In dysentery the whole body suffers, but the most vulnerable are the lower part of the colon, where the sigmoid colon is affected. A small amount of the pathogen, when ingested into the digestive tract, dies and throws the toxic substances. They are absorbed into the bloodstream and acting on the blood vessels, increase their permeability. It causes a pathological condition in the intestines. Multiplication of Shigella occurs in the mucous layer of the intestine and some lymph nodes.
Inflammatory processes in the intestine are classified depending on the extent of damage:
- Mild course of the disease is redness and swelling of the mucous membrane, slight hemorrhage.
- Severe disease occurs superficial necrosis of the mucosa in some areas of the intestine sores appear, once rejected nekrotizirovannye cells.
- Very severe disease – ulcers in the intestine, then in these places there are scars. To provoke such ulcers can and other pathogens – fungi, streptococci and staphylococci.
The defeat of the walls of the intestine leads to disruption of the body. This is manifested by increased peristalsis, frequent stools, appearance of mucus and blood flecks in the stool and pain in the affected parts of the intestine. The toxins from dysenteric coli, affect blood vessels and nerve cells not only in the intestine but also in the Central nervous system.
Due to infection, and all the other digestive organs, therefore, violated all metabolic processes in the body. Toxic substances and oxidized products cause malfunctions of the cardiovascular system and the pathological changes in different organs.
So if diagnosed with dysentery in a child or adult, to be treatedlightly to the disease should not. Can occur serious complications which will require one month of treatment.
Pronounced intoxication may be fatal in immunocompromised children. Especially dangerous is dysentery in infants, with low weight body fast is the dehydration, which leads to irreversible consequences.
Symptoms of dysentery
Signs of dysentery in a child usually manifest more than in adults, and the disease is much harder. The incubation period can range from three hours to a week – it depends on the amount of the pathogen that entered the body. Shigellosis can occur normally or atypical, to have smoothed over or give severe complications. The duration of the disease is also different. In the acute form lasts up to two months, in protracted form till three months more than three months in the chronic form.
Dysentery may be mild, moderate, severe and toxic. The disease, which was triggered by a wand sonnei, often occurs easily, without severe mucosal lesions of the intestine. Is erased the disease. Dysentery flexneri in children causes severe lesions of the intestinal walls, so the disease is in quite severe form.
The beginning of dysentery is usually very acute, the symptoms are quite specific:
- Body temperature reaches a critical level, and lasts about three days. This is accompanied by a headache.
- No appetite, develop nausea, possible vomiting repeatedly.
- The child becomes sluggish, he atypical drowsiness.
- The child complains of severe pain in the left side, which decreases after defecation.
- The abdomen is painful by palpation in the course of the intestine.
The baby defecates very often, from 5 to 30 times per day. From the beginning of the disease the stools are profuse and watery, the next day they become scarce. In them you will notice the greens, mucus and streaks of blood. In severe course of the disease the stool are missing, leaves only the slime of greenish color in a small volume. For dysentery the characteristic false desires in the toilet.
Constant voltage in babies can lead to gaping anal hole, this is most often noticeable in children who are 2 years and less. In rare cases, straining can occur with rectal prolapse, which will require professional assistance.
The severity of dysentery dependent on the intoxication and the degree of intestinal injury.
The child's condition does not change almost. Quickens bowel movement up to 8 times a day but bowel movements are not very rare and contain a little mucus. In such a period, the condition improves in a few days, the temperature is rare.
Intoxication is manifested mild symptoms. The body temperature rises during the first days to 39, further stabiliziruemost. There is vomiting, the child complains of severe pain in the abdomen. Defecation occurs more than 10 times per day, the stool has mucus and blood blotches. The state is normalized after a week, but even in the stool for a long time may contain mucus.
A severe form
Symptoms are more evident on the part of the intestine, although there is the intoxication. Stool with abnormal impurities, the child goes to the toilet more than 15 times per day. There is a high temperature, which with proper treatment reduced to a value of 37.5 and lasts for a long time, and weakness with poor appetite. The intestinal mucosa is restored for a very long time, the diarrhea stopped within a week.
Manifested by severe intoxication of the whole organism. Occurs repeated vomiting, weakness and fever. Most often in this form of disease is diagnosed with a food infection, because there is no diarrhea. Liquid stool occurs a few hours after the first symptoms and quickly turns into scanty, with mucus and blood streaks. The tummy of the baby sinks a little, you can feel the tense rectum.
In this form the characteristic irregularities in the cardiovascular system. May be convulsions and fainting.
The skin is a bluish color; extremities kolodney and blood pressure is lowered.
The duration of illness depends on the age of the child and timely treatment. It is therefore very important to quickly show the child the doctor-infectious disease.
In this form of dysentery death often occurs before the occurrence of liquid stools.
The chronic form
Any form of dysentery in children can become chronic. To trigger this unpleasant process can other diseases – rickets, anemia or worm infestation. The chronic form of the disease can lead to re-infection with Shigella. This form occurs with weak intoxication – child weak, had a poor appetite, there are pains below the stomach and rare chair. But the body temperature is normal. The disease often involves the other digestive organs, therefore the metabolism.
Features of the disease in infants
Babies under 1 year infectious disease has a numberfeatures:
- The symptoms occur gradually. Stool rare, and very fetid with mucus.
- The abdomen is not drawn, and swells.
- Baby is restless during defecation crying heavily.
- Often develops secondary infection – pneumonia or otitis media.
Uncontrollable vomiting and diarrhea quickly lead to dehydration babies. Impaired protein digestion, flatulence occurs and the malfunction of the heart. Possible convulsions and fainting. In particularly serious cases it is failure of the kidneys and liver.
Treatment of shigellosis
Treatment at home or under medical care, it depends on the age of the patient and the form of the disease, and also some factors. Treatment of dysentery in children in the home is allowed only with mild course of the disease, and if the family has no other children that can get infected. The house should not be people that work in the food industry and institutions. Is a holistic treatment that consists of such events:
- drug therapies – antibiotics and other, depending on the symptoms;
In the acute phase of the disease to a child of any age is shown to bed.
Treatment with antibiotics is indicated in severe disease. Antibiotics of different groups, which are sensitive Shigella – gentamicin, ampicillin. But often use nitrofurans, which belong to antimicrobial drugs.
If the child has expressed dehydration, his carefully otpaivat. For this purpose, using plain water, teas, broths of dried fruits, compotes and jellies. Helps congee, which is given frequently in small portions. In the hospital shown intravenous solutions of glucose and saline.
When severe pain in the abdomen are appointed antispasmodics. When the signs of enzyme deficiency are prescribed Mezim, festal, or Kreon. For quick recovery of the digestive system prescribe probiotics and vitamins.
How much the child needs to stay in hospital with dysentery, decides the attending physician. But the therapy continues until, until all of the symptoms and the results will be good.
Diet during the rehabilitation period
Diet for dysentery in children appointed immediately after decrease acute symptoms. Fasting in children now do not practice, give food in small portions. If your baby is on artificial feeding, it is temporarily transferred to dairy products.
Children over years of cooked cereal gruel-oatmeal, buckwheat and rice. You can give the vegetable puree soups, and meat products, steamed. Well-balanced digestion of Apple sauce, which contains pectin.
After the child had been ill with dysentery, he can't eat fried and smoked products for about two months. And spicy food, which is flavored with lots of spices.
How to prevent shigellosis
Preventive measures to prevent cases of the disease are simple and reduced to the observance of hygienic rules:
- Be sure to wash hands after street and visiting the toilet.
- Vegetables, fruits and berries thoroughly washed under running water and then rinsed with boiling water.
- You cannot eat products of questionable quality.
- If the children's team was a case of dysentery diseases, introduced quarantine.
- Utensils for feeding children iskusstvenniy wash well and pour boiling water.
Any infectious disease is easier to prevent than to treat. Therefore, parents should cultivate children's hygiene skills in early childhood. If the child is still ill, you should not self-medicate, you need to consult a doctor for advice and treatment.