Amoebic dysentery: symptoms, causative agent and treatment
Amoebic dysentery is an acute intestinal infection, triggered by single-celled microorganisms. The disease usually affects the small intestine, has a severe and chronic course. Amoebiasis is characterized by ulceration that may be complicated by abscess of the internal organs.
The causative agent of the disease is Entamoeba histolytica, the form of the simplest organism, is able to form in the cyst. In the absence of treatment or inadequate treatment of the external signs of infection usually disappear. However, the amoeba continues its existence, forming into cysts, which can be a source of infection for other people, coming together with human feces.
The agent may carry out its activity in various forms: fabric, translucent, chestnoi.
When tissue invasion of the ulcer can increase in size, is allocated a special substance that leads to the formation of new ulcers. Under favorable conditions, the human condition may even improve.
Luminal and incestgranny pathology is characteristic for chronic stage of amoebiasis, in which the pathogen is capable of active movement, increased release of enzymes that triggers the formation of deep ulcers.
Ways of infection
Amoebic dysentery is common among the inhabitants of Central and South America, as well as in people living in hot and humid climate. Widespread infection received in the areas of clusters of migrants from disadvantaged regions. Some of the episodes of infection according to infectious disease was in a relatively affluent countries and cities, for example, in Chicago.
The peak of the disease is observed during the warm season. Infected with amoebiasis can be in contact with another person survived the disease or are infected cysts.
Amoebic dysentery, and other infections of the intestinal system, is the definition of "disease of dirty hands".
The infection often occurs during direct interaction with patients, as well as through contaminated water and food. Carriers of the infectious agent are also flies and cockroaches. Thus, the way of transmission of amebiasis is fecal-oral.
The mechanism of development
Dysentery can be a long time does not occur and be detected when unfavorable factors: inadequate water intake, disruption of the intestinal microflora, poor nutrition.
Penetrating into tissues, amoeba provoke the development of inflammation and death of parts of the mucous surfaces. Once in a blood vessel, the agent migrates to the internal organs, leading to abscess.
Penetrating into the human body, the pathogen reaches the colon and becomes active. The cysts are able to parasitize the human body without causing overt symptoms, consuming the contents of the intestine and leaving naturally with feces. In the small section the simplest begins to actively share, which provides an eight-celled microorganisms. Under favorable conditions for propagation of bacteria parasitize, moving deep into of the bowel.
During the invasion of microorganism into the patient with a weak immune system, dysbiosis, and under the influence of various adverse conditions, such as stress, bacteria have a kind of aggressiveness, prisasyvaet to the wall of the intestinal system. First on the walls of the formed pores, which are formed in ulcer size up to 10 mm. Gradually into the bloodstream and lymph of the person doing the waste products simple, leading to a General deterioration of health.
Ulcerative lesions may be localized in the rectum, sigmoid and cecum. In some situations, the disease affects the large intestine and Appendix. Ulcers able to erode through the intestinal wall, causing its perforation, and cause peritonitis.
In the absence of treatment there is a risk of intestinal bleeding and other diseases that are extremely dangerous to human life.
In the course of their life microorganisms secrete substances which lead to intoxication of internal organs and the circulatory system, causing the typical symptoms of intestinal infection.
The amoeba is resistant to disinfectants that can go naturally with the faeces into the external environment where the parasite for quite a long time.
All types of amoebiasis are divided into 2 groups:
- overt form.
Symptomatic amebiasis is characterized by various manifestations:
- intestinal occurs in chronic and acute stage;
- extraintestinal affects the liver, lungs, genitals, brain.
- cutaneous is diagnosed most frequently a complication of amoebic dysentery.
Thus, the disease can occur in active form, in which the bacteria live inside the intestines and lose viability outside the body and in an inactive form, in the form of cysts, which is the spread of infection.
Disease according to their symptoms like a normal dysentery.The incubation period takes up to several months, is characterized by the gradual development of pathology. Suspected amoebic dysentery symptoms can be:
- frequent urge for bowel movement 4 times a day, in the period of exacerbation – up to 20 times;
- observed in stool mucous and blood streaks;
- early in the development of amoebic infection the body temperature is slightly elevated, then it may be a feverish syndrome with fever up to 38.5 °C;
- pain in the abdomen, severe cramping pain, worse during bowel movement;
- about the need to have a bowel movement, the stool contains a small amount of feces.
With the development of the pathology, the person becomes lethargic, feels a General malaise, weakness, poor appetite, decreased performance. In addition, the patient has loss of body weight, anemia, nausea and vomiting, sleep disturbance.
Acute phase may last up to 1.5 months. Well-timed therapy is often leads to positive outcomes. In the absence of necessary treatment of the symptoms of the disease disappear, and the pathology becomes chronic stage, which can last from several weeks to several months and even years.
Signs of the chronic forms are:
- a feeling of bitterness in the mouth;
- lack of appetite;
- General malaise;
- pallor of the skin;
- enlargement of the liver;
- reduction of hemoglobin;
- the disruption of the heart and blood vessels.
Long flowing pathological process often causes a complete exhaustion of the organism.
Manifestations extraintestinal forms
Extraintestinal types of diseases are characterized by the following features:
- Amoebic hepatitis occurs in the form of seals hepatic tissues, increase in liver size, increased body temperature up to 38 °C.
- The penetration of micro-organisms in liver abscess develops when the person feels fever, pain in the liver. The skin takes on a yellow color, which indicates a large abscess.
- Pulmonary amebiasis is formed by the introduction of infection into the lungs through the diaphragm. Much less common introduction of bacteria through the bloodstream. Pathology is preceded by purulent pleurisy, characterized by pain in the chest, moist cough, and purulent containing blood veins, shortness of breath, feverish syndrome, alternating with chills.
- When brain damage can occur one or more abscesses. As a rule, for this disease is very rapid, and death may occur before it is diagnosed.
- The urogenital form develops when introduction of the pathogen in the urogenital tract through the ulcer formed in the rectum. One of the main symptoms is the appearance of inflammatory processes in the urinary tract.
Cutaneous form of amebiasis is common in people with compromised immune system. Appear on the skin deep ulcerative-erosive lesions with black edgesthat do not cause pain, from which emanates an unpleasant smell. Localized ulcers on the buttocks, in the area of the perineum, near the anus.
The infection often ends with complications, e.g., hepatic abscess occurring at once, and six months later. The condition is characterized by an increase in body temperature, chills, yellowing of the skin, enlargement of the liver.
The disease often goes to nearby organs, affects the abdominal cavity, affects the lungs, cerebral Department, and spleen. The liver abscess is preceded by serous effusion, or suppuration of the pulmonary system, combined with lesions of the right kidney. In addition, the potential release of pus into the peritoneum, heart and stomach. Amoebic lung abscess occurs when the penetration of microorganisms in the pulmonary system blood flow.
Intestinal amoebiasis is complicated by the appearance of gangrene, appendicitis, cancer, peritonitis, intense bleeding, perforation of intestinal walls.
Untreated infection ends with abscesses of brain, liver, and polipous amoebic colitis, often turning into cancer.
To identify the disease will help parasitological examination, including a stool sample, which should be repeated repeatedly: symptoms of bacterial dysentery similar to amebiasis.
Diagnosis also includes examination of mucus and ulcers on run up areas and the intestinal walls. In addition, the doctor gathers medical history of pathology.
During the course of amoebic dysentery in the light stage, the patient receives a treatment while in the home. Patients with severe form of the illness put in the hospital.
Therapy of amoebiasis involves the use of drugs. Often use the following drugs:
- the glaygl;
Effectively eliminate amoebas, parasites in the lumen of the intestinal system, help drugs:
From microorganisms living in the walls of the colon and liver will help to get rid of:
Emetine administered by intramuscular injection, a course of seven days. In addition,specialist may recommend tetracycline antibiotics.
In the treatment of amoebic dysentery applies an integrated approach, which takes into account the overall health of the patient and the condition. Scheme dosage and duration of therapy shall be appointed by the attending physician, depending on stage and type of amebiasis and the nature of its flow.
In identifying the patient of complications such as abscesses, some authorities assigned to the surgical intervention with the simultaneous use of amebotsidnym funds. Cutaneous form is treated with local ointments atrena.
The patient should stay in bed and special diets, including useful minerals, vitamin C and R. In addition, the therapy used immunomodulatory drugs to restore the immune system and antihistamine: enteroseptol, suprastin.
In conjunction with medical drugs amoebiasis can be cured with folk remedies:
- To provoke the death of the amoebae and contribute to their removal will help decoctions of hawthorn or buckthorn.
- Also apply a garlic tincture. To prepare 100 ml of alcohol are mixed with 40 g of milled garlic, kept for 14 days and filter. Drink the infusion 3 times a day along with milk or fermented milk drink 30 minutes before eating 10-15 drops.
- A decoction of wild cherry is prepared as follows: 10 g of berries, pour a glass of boiling water, drink three times a day 30 minutes before meals.
- Detrimental effect on bacteria, the sorrel horse, Burnet, shepherd's purse, goose cinquefoil, thyme, plantain.
Before using popular recipes, consult your specialist.
To avoid amoebic dysentery, it is necessary to observe personal hygiene, adhere to basic sanitation standards, as well as in a timely manner to eliminate flies and cockroaches.
Sick with dysentery or infection carrier must avoid contact with food. When you visit the toilet requires thorough disinfection.
The disease most often affects the following categories of people:
- patients with chronic pathology of digestive system;
- residents of some States: India, Mexico, and other localities with no Sewerage;
- living in tropical and subtropical climates;
- people with public power;
- employees of sewage treatment plants and sewers;
- agriculture workers operating in greenhouses and greenhouses;
For patients with disease that requires clinical supervision for 12 months. People at risk should undergo annual studies in sanitary-and-epidemiological institutions.
Sanitary inspection should control the spread of infection, condition of cesspools, and to take measures to prevent faecal contamination of the environment.
Amoebic dysentery with timely detection of successfully responding to therapy. Correctly chosen treatment will help to cure the disease completely for several months.
A more responsible approach require extraintestinal forms of the disease, accompanied by abscesses of internal organs.
In identifying the disease at a late stage or the absence of treatment, can be fatal.
Upon detection of initial signs of illness need immediate treatment in a medical institution for infectious disease.
Dysentery is a dangerous infection which is often asymptomatic. The patient may not suspect the presence of pathology or not to pay attention to the characteristics. Therefore, any person is necessary to observe personal hygiene, adhere to health and safety regulations and not to eat dirty vegetables, fruits and raw food.