The causative agent of typhoid fever, pathogenesis and etiology of this disease
An infectious disease caused by bacteria. The causative agent of typhoid fever – Salmonella, cause long-lasting fever and severe intoxication. In addition, developing the defeat of the lymphoid apparatus in the first turn of the intestine.
- determining the activity Of o-antigen, through which the organism survives in a hostile environment;
- ensuring the mobility of the H-antigen;
- causing a high degree of infection the Vi-antigen;
- the harmful substance is endotoxin, which is produced after the death of the bacteria and harm the health of the body;
- education, by which the stick is introduced into the enterocytes – villi;
- frequent damage to the nervous system.
Salmonella typhi – Bacillus with special structure, due to which unable to detect the stick. The main features are:
If you compare the wand with the other bacilli, Salmonella do not form special spores, which tolerate adverse conditions. But this does not reduce their survival, so the stick can stay at 60 degrees for 30 minutes, but in boiling water it dies. But low temperature, according to the etiology of the microorganism endures quietly.
A favorable environment for breeding are dairy products, soil and water.
The most common source of infection is a bacillicarriers – infected person. Time bacteria are divided into acute – up to 3 months or chronic – more than 3 months.
The germs of typhoid fever may be contained in the feces, urine or saliva. The maximum concentration of bacteria is observed in the midst of the disease, but a sick person can infect any the first day. Contact-household way of infection is the most common.
Epidemiologists allocate direct contact – for example, through dirty hands; indirect – through household items. From insects typhoid distributes household fly.
Pathogenesis of typhoid fever comes to summer, autumn periods. It was at this time the street is optimal for microorganism temperature. The people who suffered the disease, become immune for 15-20 years.
The stage of the disease
Stages of pathogenesis of typhoid fever and their clinic were studied in detail. At the moment there are several stages in the development of infectious diseases:
- The incubation period ranges from 7 to 23 days. The pathogen enters through the mouth into the intestine – solitary follicles and Peyer's patches. A certain percentage is killed in the bloodstream, thus releasing the malicious endotoxin, which can cause toxic shock.
- Since the onset of fever begins the initial period, which lasts 4-7 days. At this time a person has severe weakness, loss of appetite, bradycardia, pallor. Language begins to be covered with a thick, white coating, a patient suffers constipation and flatulence.
- 9-10 days lasting peak, during which there is a stable high temperature. On the bright clinical picture can talk about severe intoxication. The skin diagnosed roseola elements of the rash. Language is beginning to cover the brown patina, and the edges on the visible teeth marks. Diagnosed severe enlargement of the spleen and liver. Can develop typhoid trance, during which hallucinations, seizures, delirium and disturbance of consciousness.
- When reducing intoxication, and reducing the temperature of the developing period of the permit. The patient can sleep, returns to him the appetite and General strength.
- The onset of the relapse observed in 3-10% in the period of convalescence. Re-development of the disease is accompanied by the same symptoms.
The disease itself can take place in light, heavy and moderate. Body temperature can rise up to 40-42 C.
Of the cardiovascular system characterized by development of arterial hypotension. People suffer from cough and nasal congestion. From the throat often hear the dry wheezing, which can be a symptom of a diffuse bronchitis.
For accurate diagnosis requires laboratory tests. Appointed by bacteriological examination of urine, stool and blood. In some cases, studying the bile.
As a Supplement may apply serological methods, which will show the development of the disease in the body.
Typhoid fever requires emergency hospitalization. If the patient has a slight rise in temperature, or lack thereof, is assigned to bed rest. Strict bed rest is recommended at higher rates.
From the diet completely exclude foods that promote fermentation and putrefaction. If you develop a mild degree of the disease, prescribe compliance with table No. 2, which is a week before the statement is changed to No. 15. Also the patient is the administration of essential vitamins.
The most common drug is chloramphenicol, which normalizes the body temperature. In severe forms prescribe a treatment of ampicillin and gentamicin.
At any stage prescribe the intake of stimulants leykopoeza andreparative medicine. A person needs to eat well, drink lots of water because it helps to eliminate toxins from the body.
The occurrence of complications
Typhoid is a very dangerous condition that without timely treatment can go to intestinal bleeding, the development of peritonitis. Also because this disease can be formed cholecystitis, pneumonia, and thrombophlebitis. If bleeding develops, the first symptom is melena – tarry stools, in some cases in the feces visible streaks of scarlet blood. If there is massive bleeding, hemorrhagic shock develops. The most dangerous are bleeding from the colon.
Typhoid can be fatal, most often this is due to the development of ITS (infectious-toxic shock) and peritonitis (approximately 1% of all diseases).
If there is epidemic disease spread, vaccination, LifePak. Age for the vaccine ranges from 15 to 55 years. For the age group from 3 to 15 years, invented the vaccine Vianvac.
But the most important is the observance of sanitary rules. Ranging from clean water supplies, to personal hygiene.
Shall be examined by the staff of the public power supply, because infection with typhoid fever often occurs after visiting cafes or restaurants.
After treatment the patient is prescribed maintenance therapy, which is in compliance with the proper nutrition, rest. Best of all, if 2-3 months after recovery will be excluded active sports, strong physical activity and hard work. This is due to a serious burden on the immune, nervous and digestive systems. And despite the fact that the microorganism was completely removed from the body, and toxicity is suppressed, many bodies will take time to return to his old job. Especially difficult is the rehabilitation of patients with severe typhoid fever.
Therefore, typhoid is a very serious and long disease that requires careful treatment. Despite the fact that in our day all the services are trying to follow the rules of health security, disease progression still occurs. It is therefore necessary to carefully monitor personal hygiene and at the first suspicion of the development of infectious disease to see a doctor.