Dysentery: symptoms, signs and treatment in adults
Dysentery is an area of research doctors-gastroenterologists. Dysentery in adults is as common as in children. The disease occurs equally at any age, patients of any gender. The main difference of dysentery in adults is different the intensity of the symptoms (depending on the overall condition of the body). In children, the nature of the disease is often rapid, is accompanied by rapid dehydration and requires immediate hospitalization. Symptoms of dysentery in adults are rapid in nature, develop quickly deteriorating General condition of the patient. Dysentery is a highly contagious disease, so spread it fast enough. Dysentery requires medical intervention and rapid relief of foci of infestation.
The nature of the disease
Dysentery (or shigellosis, Shigella) is damage to the mucosal tissues of the colon infectious etiology. The causative agent of the disease are bacteria of the family Syigella (Shigella) belonging to gram-negative bacterial environment. Bacteria do not form spores, actively reproduce in suitable nutrient media. In the result of parasitic activity of Shigella produce special toxins that have a negative effect on the nervous system of the patient, renal structure and the liver, all the cavities of the intestine. Dysentery may manifest in several forms, have different intestinal complications.
The acute form
Acute dysentery is characterized by rapid, often the primary episode of the disease. Symptoms are manifested brightly, the intensity and the degree of impact on the patient's body is determined by the duration of the disease, features of a General clinical history. There are several forms of acute dysentery:
- gastroenteritis when the main target parasites be the stomach and small intestine;
- gastroenterokoliticheskaya when Shigella parasites throughout the body;
- kriticheskaya form when a localized infestation is noted only in the cavity of the large intestine.
The first signs of dysentery in the adult depend on the form of disease, classification of pathogens. Every type of acute lesion is characterized by special symptoms.
The chronic form
Chronic disease often occurs after inadequate treatment of acute form or through prolonged duration. Usually chronic dysentery occurs when a weakened General immunity of the patient, with regular failure to comply with preventive measures, with several episodes of infectious lesions of the intestine and other organs of the epigastrium.
Often the clinical manifestations are a reflection of the form of the disease. The chronic form is rarely expressed symptoms when in acute period the patient experiences severe symptoms of the disease. Types of dysentery may occur as a result of penetration of a specific environment to the patient.
Infectious inflammation of the intestines can be cause by several factors, which are reduced to non-compliance of hygiene standards in everyday life. Dysentery in adults is caused by one direct route is fecal-oral, but the way of infection can differ considerably. Thus, identify the main ways of infection:
- contact-household (transmission of infectious agents Grigorieva-Shiga);
- waterway (transfer of dysentery Bacillus by Flexner, otherwise, dysentery flexneri);
- the food path (transmission path of the bacterial environment of the Sonne). Sonne dysentery is a parasite in the food lines by Shigella sonnei.
Bacterial environment if it enters the intestine begins to parasitize on the basis of the type of agent (for example, by poisoning the old herring). The causative agent of dysentery in adults is classified into two types:
- Amoebic dysentery. Parasites are one-celled organisms referred to as amoebas histolytica. Infectious agents impress the colon.
- Bacterial dysentery. Infection occurs after consumption of infected food, contact with media parasites.
The specific pathogenesis of the disease requires accurate diagnosis. The source of the disease are persons with a history of acute or chronic form of the disease. The most dangerous in terms of infection are persons with latent long-term course of the disease or with just noticeable symptoms. Usually the disease occurs in the summer months, in the period of ripening of vegetables and fruits, bathing in ponds. The incubation period lasts about 4-5 days, so to determine the source of the disease can be almost 100%. Bacillary carriers retain parasites in the body for a long time.
The clinical picture
The signs of the emergence of infectious disease is often characterized by the intensity of the manifestations, strongly affect the General health of patients of all ages. The symptomatic pattern with dysentery has several stages:
- the initial stage;
- the peak of disease;
- reduced toxicity;
Under the initial stage understand the incubation period with a gradual increase of General signs of intoxication. The height of the disease is characterized by severe signs depending on formthe course of dysentery. Fading is reduced to a gradual recovery. It should be noted that the recovery occurs after 2 weeks after a period of gradual decline, even after apparent improvement of health, the patient continues to be a carrier. Among the main symptoms of dysentery are:
- chills and a feeling of heat;
- fatigue and weakness;
- emotional instability;
- headache, migraine;
- lowering blood pressure;
- abnormal heart rhythm;
- tenderness in the epigastric region.
The disease is characterized by the primary symptoms of colitis:
- the appearance of tenesmus (the urge to bowel movement bowel with severe pain);
- dryness of mucous membranes of the oral cavity;
- by reducing the acidity of digestive juices;
- symptoms of intoxication are increasing rapidly, accompanied by vomiting, stool softener (up to 15 impulses per day).
Pain after defecation persists. The stool contains mucous or bloody blotches, indicating the development of dysbiosis. Usually the increase in temperature, decrease in blood pressure is a precursor to intestinal disorders, but gastroenteritis variant manifestations of the disease a complex of symptoms occurring simultaneously. In severe intoxication and a high frequency of urination can develop dehydration, which is dangerous to the reduction of the discharge of urine, often requires infusion therapy.
Chronic dysentery during periods of exacerbations involves frequent stools of greenish foam structure, a liquid or pasty consistency. With chronic disease patients can experience a severe loss in weight. Timely diagnosis and exclusion of possible concomitant pathologies can significantly reduce the risk of dangerous complications (typhoid, peritonitis, inflammatory lung disease), to stop the development of pathogenic conditions.
Differential diagnosis of
Diagnostic measures necessary for the rapid diagnosis, exclude serious pathological conditions with similar symptoms. The main methods of the research include the following:
- complaints of the patient;
- to study the clinical history;
- blood analysis (biochemical);
- the analysis of feces, urine (deployed);
- Ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity;
- visual inspection of the patient's body (the presence or absence of the rash).
When burdened with the clinic may need to consult specialists. An important task of diagnosis is the exclusion of other intestinal diseases of bacterial or infectious nature. Often parasitizing many species of microorganisms in the intestine causes identical symptoms. It is possible to allocate the basic symptoms of the same disease, but with characteristic differences from dysentery:
- Poisoning products. In this state there is no severe cramping pain in the iliac part of the peritoneum due to the lack of lesions of the colon. Do not exist and the urge to defecate.
- Salmonellosis. When salmonellosis cal has a tinge of swamp slime, light or dark greenish color.
- Amoebiasis. Disease not accompanied by fever, a febrile syndrome. The stool includes blood and mucous components that resemble jelly crimson. The main causative agent of an amoeba.
- Cholera. The disease is not accompanied by severe signs of colitis begins with severe diarrhea, vomiting, and the color of the stool is reminiscent of rice broth. No false urge to defecation.
- Typhoid fever. The disease has no specific signs of colitis, but appear pink rash, severe hyperthermia, affected the cavity of the large intestine.
- Intestinal colitis. If the colitis noninfectious nature, then often it is caused by a toxic lesions of the body with uremic syndrome, pathological development of the small intestine, cholecystitis, gastritis of different nature. The disease usually has no season and special of the previous factors on the background of the overall health of the patient.
- Hemorrhoids. When inflammation of hemorrhoids, as well as when during hemorrhoids after defecation are the appearance of blood flecks in the stool. The disease occurs without obvious inflammatory lesions in the rectum.
- Oncogenic education. Cancer of the colon accompanied by severe diarrhea with blood. The nature of the stool regular. There are symptoms of intoxication, but the rapid nature of the disease, as in dysentery, is missing.
Timely identification of dysentery and type of the pathogen allows it to make the necessary treatment plan, to accelerate the recovery of the patient, to eliminate the risks of complications of the disease.
Dysentery and pregnancy
Gestational period in women of any trimester, complications of dysentery is a serious complication of pregnancy. The expectant mother is a strong weakness, rise of temperature, signs of intoxication, vomiting and nausea. The main danger of the state is the strong reduction in uterine cavities that may lead to miscarriage or premature birth. Bouts of false urge to defecate provoke rectal prolapse as a result of frequent podstugivaniya.
Treatment of dysentery should be held in the walls of the hospital under constantthe supervision of specialists who know all about the dysentery. After a thorough diagnosis and other studies (development of General and gastroenterological and obstetric history) is determined by the overall clinical status of the patient, is assigned to the appropriate treatment. The treatment of dysentery includes the administration of antibacterial drugs taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient.
All drugs should be as safe for the fetus and the expectant mother. Bed rest, plenty of warm drinks, a balanced diet and taking medications - a key to successful therapy. The disease is harmful to the fetus because of the possibility of intrauterine infection.
The treatment of dysentery can be done both at home and in hospital. Hospitalization is usually required when burdened current of disease, with severe symptomatic picture. Hospitalization is necessary and if you cannot treat at home, without proper care for patients. Primary treatment involves the treatment of the following drugs:
- antibiotics (group ftorhinolon, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins);
- saline solutions (rehydron, glucosolan, oralit and others);
- eubiotics (tablets baktisubtil, primadophilus, Linex, etc.);
- adsorbents and chelators (POLYSORB, enterosgel, polyphepan, Smertin).
If necessary, it is recommended to apply antispasmodic medications, binders and vitamins from dysentery. You also need to drink plenty of liquids, receiving immunomodulators, a variety of enzyme complexes, e.g., festal, CREON, Mezim. Effective is the tool methyluracil. Intestinal infection and its chronic forms are also treated microclimate, physiotherapeutic procedures. Patients it is important to follow a special diet excluding fatty, spicy and other aggressive products. It is unacceptable to drink alcohol, coffee, dairy and sweet products. Good nutrition should be resumed only after a 2-3-week course of treatment. Diet after the disease should be enriched with vitamins, nourishing and useful.
Before you can treat the disease at home, you should consult with a specialist. The dysentery of the adult folk remedies allows you to alleviate the condition of patients, enhance the action of certain drugs, a positive effect on intestinal flora. The main recipes include:
- propolis alcohol with water;
- juice of burdock;
- infusions of chamomile, thyme, calendula;
- Golden mustache, water;
- garlic and onions (garlic extracts);
- berries cherries or grapes;
- the root of Burnet.
Herbs and medicinal extracts in the home must be made with a special knowledge. Many doctors practice traditional medicine along with medication treatment. It should be noted that dysentery is not treated only homemade recipes. Medication much faster than alternative methods. In infectious inflammation of the digestive tract is very important, the timeliness and speed to avoid recurrences in the form of chronic and acute complications of a protracted process. The duration of illness also depends on the speed of the treatment.
Prognosis and preventive measures
Forecast mostly favorable, with timely and comprehensive treatment of acute forms of dysentery, the chronic pathology occurs very rarely. In some cases, after the transfer of infection can persist residual functional impairment of the colon (colitis postdysenteric).
General measures for the prevention of dysentery imply compliance with sanitary and hygienic norms in everyday life, food production and public catering enterprises, monitoring of water sources, treatment of sewage (especially sewage disinfection of medical institutions).
Dysentery discharged from the hospital no earlier than three days after clinical recovery in the single negative bacteriological test (sampling of material for bacteriological examination is made not earlier than two days after the end of treatment). Workers in the food industry and persons equated to them, shall be subject to discharge after a double negative results of bacteriological analysis.
Dysentery is an infectious inflammation of the parasitic activity of pathogenic flora. Specific prophylaxis of dysentery boils down to respect all rules of hygiene in the use of water, food. Mainly dysentery in young children occurs more frequently, but the precautions adults will eliminate the risks of developing severe disease. An outbreak of dysentery may occur in the summer and autumn periods when it is necessary to pay particularly attention to the quality of food and clean drinking water. In civilized countries, the disease occurs much less frequently, because there are preventive inoculations compulsory vaccination vaccine. The epidemic is more marked in villages and rural areas.