Toxic shock: symptoms, causes, treatment
Toxic shock is a severe condition that develops during various pathologies of an infectious nature. The development of this condition influence the toxic substances that appear in the body due to viruses and bacteria. The danger of this disease lies in the fact that when it is observed a sudden decrease in blood pressure that could eventually cause death. Therefore, it is important to know what to do when you experience this condition, namely the rules and features of first aid.
Toxic shock syndrome falls into the category of conditions of an emergency nature, which are accompanied by development of the cascade complex pathological activities of vital organs and internal systems. As a result, required urgently revives the help of a physician, and further requires compliance with special medication.
But first you should identify the main precipitating causes of this condition. The main and underlying causes of this condition are communicable diseases:
- the development of typhoid fever;
- the state of salmonellosis;
- pneumonia of any type;
- infection of meningococcal type;
In addition to these infectious diseases, there are nonspecific factors of infectious-toxic shock in children and adults:
- Surgical surgical intervention.
- Various disorders of skin integrity.
- The appearance of abnormalities during labor.
- Abortive termination of a pregnancy with complications.
- Allergic reactions.
- HIV and AIDS.
- The use of drugs.
Often women have this pathological condition occurs as a result of improper use of tampons during menstruation. Sometimes when using these tools, the body can get infection such as Staphylococcus aureus that produces toxic substances.
Usually Staphylococcus aureus affects women and girls from 15 to 30 years. The mortality rate in this state is 16%. This defeat sometimes occurs as a result of the use of vaginal contraceptives.
There is a classification of toxic shock, which divides this state into several types. Each type has certain symptoms with varying degrees of severity. According to the classification, this condition is divided into the following types:
- the initial degree. During this state the arterial pressure remains at a normal level, but increased rates of heart rate. Frequency can reach up to 120 beats per minute;
- the degree of average weight. When this condition occurs the progression of symptoms associated with the cardiovascular system. There is a decrease in systolic blood pressure and heart palpitation;
- heavy degree. This degree is characterized by a significant decrease in systolic tone, decrease of arterial pressure to 70 mm Hg. article is an increase in shock index data. May experience fever and decrease in amount of urine;
- complicated stage. During this form noted the occurrence of irreversible changes in the internal organs, tissues. The skin becomes earthy hue. May occur coma.
Also, there are varieties depending on the causative agent:
- Streptococcal syndrome. This condition is manifested after the generic activities, contamination of wounds, injuries, injury, burns of the skin. Also, this syndrome is manifested as a result of complications of various infectious pathologies, especially pneumonia.
- Toxic shock from staphylococcal type. This condition often occurs during surgical operations and when using tampons.
- Bacterial-toxic shock. Occurs when infected blood. This species can cause serious complications at any stage of sepsis.
The pathogenesis of infectious-toxic shock is accompanied by the penetration into the blood of harmful elements. Allocated to these components by bacteria-saprophytes. In the body there is an immediate release of adrenaline and other biologically active elements that cause the spasm of post-capillary venules and arterioles. The blood, which is discharged via the opened arteriovenous shunts, ceases to fully carry out its intended purpose. This process causes ischemia of the tissues and metabolic acidosis.
The deterioration of microcirculatory blood composition, provoking tissue hypoxia. Lack of oxygen activates the anaerobic metabolism of nature. Despite the fact that this condition is considered pathological, while it is marked improvement in the hemodynamics, optimizing the metabolism of carbohydrates in the brain and myocardium. But in the subsequent period because of a violation of the microcirculation occurs, the increased tissue hypoxia, in the end, this process provokes the progression of toxic shock.
At the level of the internal organs as toxic shock manifests itself in the form of a Deposit of blood in the capillaries and the allocation of its liquid part in intercellular space area. In the beginningthere is a relative, and in the future a period of absolute hypovolemia (decrease of volume of circulating blood). There is also a decrease in venous return of blood to the heart.
The symptoms of toxic shock appear brightly and rapidly. Their active development can be observed within 2 days and after that period may occur instant death. It is therefore essential at the first signs of this condition immediately to give first aid.
The main features of toxic shock are:
- sharp decline in AD, but there is an increase in heart rate;
- it is noted a sudden increase in body temperature, this condition leads to fever;
- severe headaches;
- active vomiting, they can occur continuously and do not depend on food intake;
- stomach cramps;
- increased muscle pain;
- can occur short fainting;
- if infection occurs due to damage to the skin can cause tissue death.
In addition to the above symptoms, there is renal, cardiac, hepatic failure. In children this syndrome has elevated signs of intoxication. In children, there have been persistent jumps in blood pressure and pulse. In addition, you can appear rash on the skin of the feet and palms.
Often all manifestations of toxic shock patients confuse the symptoms of ordinary colds, so try to eliminate them yourself. As a result, they begin to use various drugs, means that instead of good, on the contrary, only worsen the condition.
To prevent unpleasant effects when the first signs of toxic shock, be sure to call an ambulance. Only a doctor can carry out the necessary treatment that will help not only to eliminate the unpleasant symptoms, but also to save the patient's life.
When failure to provide timely care during infectious-toxic shock may receive a number of serious complications:
- Disorder of blood circulation, which internal organs do not get required amount of oxygen.
- The occurrence of respiratory failure with the acute course. This condition is manifested by extensive lesions of the lungs, especially if it is a condition triggered by the pneumonia.
- It is a violation of coagulability of blood and to increase the probability of formation of blood clots. These disorders can cause severe bleeding.
- Toxic shock can cause a state of renal failure. If time does not provide treatment, the kidney can completely refuse. To relief the condition is assigned to the lifetime performance of such procedures as dialysis. In severe cases, appointed by the transplantation of the kidneys.
Clinic of infectious-toxic shock has rapid development, so the diagnosis is carried out only on the clinical picture. It is worth considering that the process is fast and people can die at any moment, so it is crucial to carry out the necessary medicinal therapy.
Simultaneously with the therapeutic measures are carried out the following diagnostic procedures:
- performed seeding natural secretions – blood, urine, menstrual fluid, saliva. This test is done to determine the presence of bacteria to clarify the type of infectious lesions. However, with this type of analysis it is impossible to identify a staph infection, but if the causative agent will not be sown, then it is possible to determine with certainty that the infection is caused by Staphylococcus;
- roentgenography of the lungs. This examination allows time to set the defeat of the respiratory organs;
- performing specific tests. These tests can help differentiate the disease from other types of infections, sepsis, bacterial infection, leptospirosis, typhoid fever.
When an infectious-toxic shock treatment therapy must be administered only in a hospital. The doctor on the basis of the clinical picture establishes special medications and procedures.
Assistance until the ambulance arrived
Important if you have symptoms of infectious-toxic shock to provide timely assistance. First and foremost, you need to call the doctor, do not delay, otherwise it may lead to death.
At the first sign of infectious-toxic shock is an emergency which consists of the following activities:
- It is recommended to measure blood pressure, body temperature, calculation of the respiratory rate.
- Be sure to set the exact period of deterioration of the patient.
- Running warming the patient. To do this, under the legs is enclosed by a heating pad.
- Removed all belts and clothing that delivers a strong discomfort.
Features of treatment
Medical therapy for toxic shock needs to be comprehensive, it must not only eliminate all manifestations of this condition, but also ensures complete cleansing of the body from toxic substances.
At therapeutictherapy involves the following actions:
- eliminates the main source of infection is removed all the bandages, tampons, diaphragm from the vagina. If the pathogen provoked the suppurative process then requires surgical intervention. During operations performed excision of the affected tissue, then removed pus formation;
- be sure to enter dopamine, can also be used hormonal agents, for example, dexamethasone;
- assigned to antibiotic and antibacterial agents;
- allergic reactions with special oral antihistamines;
- doctors are supposed to eliminate oxygen deficiency. Complications, the patient may be connected to the ventilation system;
- to correct hemorheological symptoms the patient is assigned to the use of different solutions – albumin, aminophylline, lasix. To clean blood composition is applied to the saline solution;
- to reduce the symptoms of intoxication is assigned to the use of absorbents, good action has enterosgel. Need to provide high protection against dehydration, you should drink a special saline solutions;
- increases immunity;
- during treatment, the patient needs to be fed through the catheter. This will reduce the increased load on the digestive organs and speed up the recovery process of the body;
- if necessary, surgical cleansing of the focus of infection.
During the period of medical therapy in the first place should be eliminated all complications – is the restoration of blood pressure, restores organic function. To improve and strengthen the immune system requires the introduction of immunoglobulin. After this is corrected using the main provoking factor for toxic shock. Further assigned to medical therapy, which is directed at eliminating the underlying disease.
In the presence of the introduction of streptococci acute process leads to death in almost half of patients who delivered in the hospital. Mostly the death occurs due to serious complications pathology – sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis (this condition is characterized by bacterial infection that destroys the epidermis of the skin).
Prognosis and prevention
If medical treatment is provided in a timely manner, the patient is completely restored and all the unpleasant symptoms of toxic shock fully tested. If septico-toxic shock to identify, it is possible to promptly perform all necessary remedial measures without severe consequences to health. It is important to consult a doctor in the first hours of this condition.
In addition, it is important to follow some preventive measures:
- It is necessary to eliminate the pathology, which can be the main causes of development of infectious-toxic shock. Usually in children and adults, this condition develops during pneumonia.
- Regular inspection of the condition of the skin. The skin should be clean, have a bright shade. If suddenly observed damage to the skin, it is necessary to perform timely treatment of wounds with special antiseptic substances.
- If you experience inflammatory process it in a timely manner. In these cases you should immediately consult a doctor who can prescribe appropriate treatment and use of effective drugs.
- It is recommended to take vitamin complexes to improve the body's defenses.
- It is recommended during menstruation to alternate tampons and pads. But many gynecologists recommend the use of only the pads because when they use the risk of infections is quite low.
You need to monitor your health, time to eliminate the pathological state. In order to maintain your health in a normal condition, you should always strictly follow all doctor's recommendations, take the necessary vitamin complexes, to walk in the fresh air, eat right and fully sleep. It is worth remembering that toxic shock is a dangerous condition that can quickly lead to death, so it is important to prevent the occurrence of this pathological process in the body.