Virus with vomiting, diarrhea and fever: causes and treatment
Virus infection is manifested not only as colds in the respiratory tract. Pathogens cause inflammation in the digestive organs. Penetrating into the intestinal mucosa, they multiply rapidly, which leads to intoxication. Virus, vomiting, diarrhea and temperature inevitably occur in every person. Adult manifestations of the disease in a few days disappear without specific treatment. In children these signs are more severe and require symptomatic therapy.
Why develop vomiting and diarrhea during viral infection
The reason for the development of high temperature, which is accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea are viruses. This state developing at such illnesses:
- flu, including intestinal;
- hepatitis a (Botkin's disease).
The temperature of the virus is a result of strong intoxication. The more intense the reproduction of pathogenic microbes, the higher the body temperature. The degree of intoxication (poisoning) depends on the state of the immune system. In children this symptom is more pronounced, due to immaturity of immune function.
Vomiting is another sign of intoxication. It is a result of excess toxins in the blood that affect the vomiting center in the brain.
In children high intoxication leads to a shortage of glucose and the production of acetone. He irritate the vomiting center and causes frequent vomiting at high temperature. The child can tear in the acute phase of the disease every 40-60 minutes.
Diarrhea is the result of a lesion of the intestinal mucosa. With the introduction of the virus of the inner wall of the body become inflamed, produce an increased amount of mucus. Violated the processes of absorption in the epithelium, food is digested insufficiently. Failures of functionality of the intestine cause diarrhea. Its intensity depends on the degree of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
Vomiting and diarrhea during infection (viral hepatitis) is more pronounced. Its appearance is connected with the liver and change in its function (production of bile).
Symptoms of viral infection
The incubation period of the viral infection lasts about 2 days. But this time can increase to weeks or be reduced to 6 hours. The shorter the incubation period, the harder it occur nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
The disease always begins acutely with a rise in temperature. The person experiences chills, could not get warm. There is a headache in the temples, dizziness, weakness, aches in the bones, the skin becomes pale.
Then joined by nausea. The patient loses appetite, increases sensitivity of receptors to external stimuli, increased perception of odors and tastes. Some patients may experience hypersalivation – increased salivation.
In the midst of illness joined by vomiting. This symptom does not always happen, only in severe cases in immunocompromised, elderly patients and children (especially preschoolers). As a rule, the vomiting brings temporary relief or not doing it at all. Involuntary contractions of the diaphragm cause a person severe discomfort and pain in the stomach. In severe cases, vomiting is accompanied by a semiconscious condition.
Virus with vomiting and fever often causes diarrhea. It is a sign of infection of the intestine. Chair when the virus, usually periodic, has no such system, as in acute infectious diseases caused by bacteria. By its nature it is often casecompany than watery, does not contain pus or blood. Stools found undigested elements of food, isolated fragments of mucus.
If bowel movements occur every hour and more than 8-10 times a day, you should suspect an infectious disease caused by Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, esherihiami, and immediately seek to diagnose the infectious diseases hospital.
The definition of viral intestinal infection in babies difficult because they can't explain their condition.
The signs of the beginning of the development of vomiting and diarrhoea of viral origin in infants:
- constant crying without tears;
- the refusal of baby food or breast;
- the rise in body temperature to 38 °C;
- vomiting after each feeding;
- sleep disorders and sleep phase;
- rigid abdomen due to the accumulation of gases in the intestine, rumbling;
- diarrhea frequent, stool liquid, frothy, yellow color with a pungent odor.
The state of the baby at the same heavy. Rapidly developing dehydration, which significantly worsens the prognosis.
How to give first aid
Status in viral lesions of the intestine does not require hospitalization of patients. But the family doctor should, especially a child of preschool age.
Before coming to the physician, the patient must be put to bed and ensure complete rest. To cancel any meal.
It is extremely important to prevent dehydration, give the person drinking the water at room temperature. If a child is sick, he absolutely refuses to drink water, it can be replaced with any drink, as long as the liquid entered the body.
Ideal for the preventiondehydration when vomiting and diarrhea are drugs for oral rehydration powders for the preparation of salt solutions:
These solutions make up lost with vomiting and diarrhea, salt and fluid.
Periodically it is necessary to make control measurements of body temperature. If her figures of 38.5° C and above, it is necessary to give antipyretic – paracetamol, ibuprofen.
If the sick infant, you need to constantly be near him and monitor his condition. Kid needs to lay on its side. So it does not overturned, to make bolsters from scrap vehicles (blanket, pillow, towel) and put on the back. This is to ensure that during vomiting the child does not choke on the vomit.
Treatment of vomiting and diarrhea during viral infection
Specific treatment aimed at the destruction of viruses does not exist. Therapeutic measures performed to relieve symptoms.
If the patient has severe nausea, he prescribed antacids. Are drugs that regulate acidity in the digestive tract, mucous envelop, reduce inflammation and irritation. Their use brings noticeable relief, reduces the likelihood of vomiting.
Antiemetic drugs, such as reglan, if the virus is not prescribed. These drugs act on the Central nervous system and cause serious side effects and have many contraindications, including children's age. By reducing body temperature and compliance with drinking regime vomiting takes place independently and quickly.
If children have vomiting caused by increased acetone, enough to drink a 5% glucose solution (1 tablespoon or 1 amp).
To resolve diarrhea designate sorbents:
- activated carbon;
To facilitate the work of the digestive tract and improve the processes of digestion, the patient is prescribed pancreatic enzymes – Pancreatin, Mezim, festal, Kreon.
For the prevention and treatment of dysbacteriosis shown lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria:
Before diagnosis the specialist is not at the first symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting to drink antibacterial preparations. During viral infections, their method is inappropriate.
Vomiting and diarrhea if the virus does not pose a threat to human health. The disease and its symptoms are treated on an outpatient basis. With adequate therapy diarrhea and vomiting are a few days and do not cause serious consequences or complications.