What is diarrhea: symptoms, signs and treatment
Almost everyone though time in life happened this unpleasant problem as diarrhea or diarrhea. Diarrhea is a disruption of the stomach, in which there is frequent bowel movements with liquid stool. This condition usually passes quickly. However, if the diarrhea lasts more than three days, it could face serious problems up to full dehydration. Therefore, it is important to know what is diarrhea and how it manifests itself.
What is diarrhea
Diarrhea – condition of the intestine, accompanied by malabsorption of water, mineral salts, useful elements from his region of the lumen into the blood. Under the influence of the main precipitating factor occurs increased peristalsis, in the end, water and useful components are just not absorbed in the blood composition. In conjunction with this condition is the development of the inflammatory process in the large and small intestines.
Certain infections or high levels of salts in the lumen of the intestine causes the formation of reverse flow of water from the blood and tissues in the intestinal region. For this reason, the main cause of diarrhea is diarrhea.
Causes and symptoms of diarrhea
Loose stools can appear suddenly and last for a long time. High this condition lasts for about 14 days. In this period is the acute form. If the diarrhea persists more than two weeks, in these cases, a chronic form of diarrhea.
Provoking causes of this disease can be a number of reasons:
- a wrong diet. Diarrhea may occur due to increased consumption of coarse foods;
- the use of the frozen or raw water;
- the allergies to some foods or drugs;
- the presence of intestinal infections;
- the presence of viral or bacterial infection in the digestive system;
- rotavirus infection type;
- chronic disease of the stomach or intestines;
- problems with the metabolism;
- the lack of useful components in the body;
- violations of the emotional nature;
- the emergence of entities with malignant nature;
- the presence of irritable bowel syndrome;
- poor environmental conditions, a change of scenery.
Diarrhea may have different symptoms. The signs may differ, and some may speak about the presence in the body of serious infection.
The main symptoms of diarrhea:
- May be a constant or a single bowel movement loose stools. Sometimes the patient may occur frequent urge to the toilet.
- Pain in the abdomen. Pain can be intense and have a spastic character. Pain can cause a false urge to defecate or, on the contrary, the pain is the main symptom of profuse discharge. Pain indicate food poisoning, from-for which and having diarrhea. If discomfort persists for more than two hours, then you should consult a doctor.
- The occurrence of increasing temperature. Fever diarrhea often suggests that in the intestine there are pathogenic microbes. It is recommended to immediately call the doctor, otherwise there may be serious complications.
- The nausea and retching. During diarrhoea there is a disorder of movement content in the gut. The result is the secretion of toxic substances that provoke nausea and retching.
- Change the color of stool structure. Ordinary manifested diarrhea light brown stool may be mucus or foamy structure. If the chair has a white, green, black colors and if there are any blood clots, then this will be the main symptom of the presence of pathology. In these cases, you should consult a doctor for appropriate medical care.
Features of diarrhea in children
The manifestation of diarrhea in children may occur due to factors that are much different from the causes of diarrhea in adult patients.
Diarrhea in children is manifested in the following precipitating reasons:
- the manifestation of allergic reactions to certain foods;
- infectious lesions of the intestinal nature.
- diarrhea can occur when children traveling with their parents. The child can get infected in trains, public toilets, public transport;
- functional diarrhea. In this disease the children have not observed any pathological changes, there is pain and other symptoms except diarrhea, but it can be disrupted bowel motility;
- the use of drugs. Children often have side effects while taking antibiotics;
- overeating. Often when excessive eating in children, there is indigestion, which occurs diarrhea;
Often children with diarrhea believe the remains of undigested food. The inability of the gastrointestinal tract of the child's body to digest or usvoyte a particular kind of food is manifested in the form of diarrhea after takingthis food. In these cases it is recommended to abandon the use of this type of food.
What causes diarrhea in infants
In infants, the diarrhoea occurs for other reasons. Usual predisposing factors associated with dietary patterns.
The main precipitating factors include:
- Incorrect introduction of complementary foods.
- Artificial feeding.
- Diarrhea may occur if foods are used the wrong products.
- Failure to follow the recommended time interval between the introduction of a new product.
- Infection intestinal infections.
- If used for feeding large portions.
- The presence of Allergy to the injected product.
- If the mother is breastfeeding uses the products that cause the child diarrhea.
- Lactase deficiency. Usually with this condition in newborns diarrhea occurs with the first days of life.
- Cystic fibrosis. In this state there is profuse diarrhea, which is accompanied by an unpleasant odor. Also emptying have a buttery texture.
- ARI. In this condition infants often have diarrhea.
Depending on the precipitating factors and development of disease, diarrhea can have several types. Each species has a specific mechanism of development:
- Secretory diarrhea is diarrhea that occurs during the development of inflammation in the region of the small intestine. This disease arises from bacterial destruction of Salmonella, enterovirus. While this form is a violation of the transmembrane transport of sodium and chlorine ions in the region of epithelial cells. The accumulation of these elements occurs in the lumen of the intestine, which ultimately causes the pulling of water from the tissues and blood.
- Invasive diarrhea. This type of disease is the result of inflammation in the lower part of the intestine – the mucosa of the colon and rectum. This pathological process is accompanied by problems with absorption of fluids. This type of diarrhea cause Shigella, and Entamoeba histolytica.
- Osmotic diarrhea. This type of diarrhea is the result of disorders of digestion of carbohydrates with the advent of high levels of disaccharides that attract water, while breaking its absorption in the blood. This type of diarrhea occurs during the enzyme deficiency, dysbiosis, as well as some other varieties of viral and infectious lesions in adults.
What are the symptoms of diarrhea indicate its cause
In order to determine the type and cause of this pathology, should pay attention to certain symptoms. They can sometimes help to identify the provoking factor independently, but it is better to consult a doctor for adequate examination and treatment.
What symptoms may indicate the type and cause of diarrhea:
- The occurrence of frequent, abundant, watery stools. This symptom indicates the presence of diarrhea of secretory type.
- The presence of blood in the stool, mucous impurities with a green tint, when this occurs often (5 times a day) and in small quantities. These symptoms occur during invasive forms of diarrhea, which is provoked by shigellosis or amoebiasis.
- The occurrence of prolonged diarrhea with pasty structure, which is not accompanied by blood and mucous impurities. These symptoms are observed during osmotic form of diarrhea that is caused by goiter or functional bowel disorder.
The main complication of diarrhea is dehydration, in which there is increased loss of salts and fluids. This can cause further disorders of the nervous system, problems with the heart vessels.
Diagnostic methods and an increase in the
Diarrhea, particularly in children, can cause serious consequences. It is therefore recommended as early as possible to make a diagnosis and further treatment.
During the examination the doctor must ask the patient about all the symptoms – the presence of pain, type of discharge, color, and the presence of the temperature, vomiting. On the basis of these symptoms is established the preliminary diagnosis.
In addition, assigned a number of tests that will help to establish an accurate diagnosis:
- The study of blood.
- Analysis of feces.
- Done urine analysis.
- Does the scraping.
- For a full diagnosis is carried out gastroscopy and colonoscopy.
If diarrhea occurs and its further development need to know what to do to prevent its severity and dehydration. In medicine it is used several therapies to remedy this pathology:
- Etiotropic therapy. This kind of treatment therapy is aimed at elimination of the pathogen in the intestine. With this treatment, used antibacterial drugs that are absorbed into the bloodstream. They are used for 5 days.
- Pathogenetic therapy. In this treatment is the binding and excretion of toxic substances using sorbents. These drugs are taken approximately 40 minutes before meals and other medications. Additionally, should compliance with the special diet, which should decrease the load on the stomach and restore salt and fluid inthe body. To replenish fluids and salts are special drugs in the form of solutions and also used a lot of water.
- Application of symptomatic therapy. It is required to reduce the discomfort, namely pain in the abdomen.
Especially often during diarrhea is assigned the use of special drugs that can stop the symptoms of this disease.
To the popular drugs which are prescribed for the treatment of diarrhea include:
- Smectite. This medicinal product included in the group of chelators. Due to the impact of this drug is excretion of pathogenic microorganisms. If you experience the first signs are advised to accept smektu. This will eliminate future unpleasant consequences. Means normally tolerated, practically does not cause unpleasant symptoms and can be used even by women in pregnancy.
- Enterosgel. This drug is in its effects similar smecta. The only difference is that it is produced in the form of a gel.
- Hilak Forte. This medication is made in the form of drops, which includes a prebiotic. During its application there is a restoration of the intestinal microflora, in the future, the patient recovers quickly.
- Linex. This tool eliminates diarrhea, it normalizes the functioning of the stomach and intestines. During its application is the elimination of all harmful bacteria.
- Imodium. Almost instantly eliminates the diarrhea, but it should be drunk with caution, because it does not give a therapeutic effect. The tool slows down peristalsis, which ultimately leads to a lack of bowel movement for several days.
- Polifepan. This remedy belongs to the group of chelators. In its application is the removal of pathogenic microorganisms. Also, this drug has antioxidant and detoxication effects.
Diet for diarrhea
A if you experience diarrhea immediately begin to look at their medicine Cabinet of drugs that are able to quickly stop. However, the use of drugs for this disease will not be enough. Definitely in the future, the company needs to comply with proper nutrition, will prevent another disorder of the digestive organs.
For dietary need to follow important recommendations:
- We would like to eat less fried, smoked and fatty foods. Immediately after stopping the diarrhea cook a light soup based on fish or vegetables. You can also eat low-fat varieties of fish, which made for a couple.
- You should refuse from alcoholic beverages, caffeine, soda. If there is thirst, you should drink compotes with dried fruits and chamomile tea.
- It is not advisable to eat raw vegetables and fruits because they increase intestinal motility. You can eat bananas, apples can be eaten baked.
- It is better to abandon starchy foods, you can eat white bread in the form of toasts.
- You need to eat often 5-6 times a day. Portions should be small.
At observance of all recommendations during diarrhoea all the symptoms will go away quickly. If the diarrhea appeared due to indigestion, he usually goes in a day. Most importantly, you need time to identify the cause of this illness and to provide timely assistance.