The most poisonous mushrooms in Russia and the world
Mushrooms, in addition to nutrients, can contain toxins. If their concentration is large, such product becomes dangerous for health or even human life. Deadly poisonous mushrooms of Russia can be found in any region. So fans of silent hunting it is necessary to remember the distinctive features and the favorite locations of such copies.
Varieties of mushrooms
All mushrooms can be divided into four large groups:
- Edible. They can be eaten without fear of food. They do not contain any toxic substances. Non-poisonous mushrooms can be dangerous only for those who suffer from allergies.
- Inedible. They do not contain toxic substances, but eating them is impossible as they have an unpleasant taste or smell.
- Conditionally edible. In its raw form is dangerous to humans. Their use can lead to serious poisoning. If they are subjected to proper treatment, including heat, that is.
- Poisonous. These are mushrooms with a high content of toxic substances. Even after processing, they do not lose their toxic properties. And severe poisoning is sometimes enough to eat a small piece of such a product.
The greatest danger to humans are poisonous instances. Especially the most dangerous of them must study.
Mushrooms with a high content of phallotoxins and amatoxins
The most poisonous mushrooms Russia contain exactly phallotoxin or amatoxin. The danger of these substances that the symptoms manifested after the poison has had its effect. After a few hours open severe diarrhea, cramps, overwhelming thirst. Three days later, the person becomes much easier. But after another day's liver is failing and people dying. Phallotoxin and amatoxin contains the following mushrooms:
- Cracker – the most poisonous mushroom in the world. Inexperienced pickers can be confused with Russula or Radovani. Pale toadstool hiding in coniferous forests, birch forests and oak groves. The cap diameter does not exceed 10 cm in a young instance it has a bell-shaped form. With age becomes flat. Color may vary from white to yellowish-olive. Often the plates are white. Maximum leg length of 12 cm and It is hollow inside. Can be white or have a light yellowish tint. A large concentration of toxins contained in all parts of the mushroom, including mycelia and spores. This is the most dangerous mushroom in the world, so information about him must be known to all without exception mushroom.
- Amanita muscaria. Bright and attractive fungus is difficult to confuse with others. It differs a convex cap, painted in bright red color with a white or yellowish flakes. Young specimen such flakes may be missing. Plates are white. The length of the stalk can reach 20 cm It is painted also in white color has a yellowish ring. Mushroom loves coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests. The most comfortable feeling in the birch forest.
- The galerina bordered. It is often confused with summer mushrooms. The cap diameter does not exceed 5 cm. Its shape is bell-shaped at first, but as growth becomes flat. Painted in brown-yellow color. After the rain the colour can vary. Stem thin, not more than 0.5 cm in diameter. Length to 5 cm Has a yellowish ring, covered with powdery bloom. Most often the galerina can be found on rotting coniferous wood.
Correct recognition of edible and poisonous mushrooms can save lives. Even a small piece of this product can lead to death.
If you doubt that you found in the woods mushroom is edible, not to tear it. It is better to return home with an empty basket, than to risk their lives.
Mushrooms containing muscarine
Muscarine belongs to the group of neurotoxins. First and foremost, it affects the human nervous system. All poisonous mushrooms containing the substance can cause hallucinations. Fatal results in the consumption of large quantities of this product and failure to provide assistance. The first signs of poisoning appear after half an hour after consumption. Initially, changing color of face, increased salivation, shortness of breath, the victim falls into a feverish state, quickens the heartbeat.
Poisonous wild mushrooms that contain muscarine:
- Amanita pantherina. Prefers coniferous and deciduous forests. His hat can reach 10 cm in diameter. Painted in red-yellow or brown color. Across the surface dotted with small white flakes. White leg bottom has a bulge. In its upper part has a wide ring. Has a white thin plates.
- Volcanica sharp. Small mushroom, cap diameter not exceeding 4 cm Young specimens have a bell-shaped form of the cap. With the development of it is becoming PLANO-convex with a small hump in the center. The old volcanic hat crack. The flesh is in the air oxidizes and changes colour. Leg length does not exceed 4 cm. It has a cylindrical shape, slightly thickened below. At the top you can notice a light powdery coating. Volokonno can be found in coniferous forests and close to swamps. The shape of the cap, these mushrooms are similar to mushrooms than dangerous forinexperienced mushroom pickers.
- Talkie Tina whitish. The edges of the cap have a slightly wavy shape and a little bent at the bottom. Its diameter is less than 6 cm Painted in white or light gray color. On the surface of the cap visible powdery coating that is easy to remove. In wet weather the fungus becomes slimy. Foot in diameter does not exceed the diameter of 0.5 cm and Its length not more 4 cm On the surface the legs are small spots of walnut shade. These poisonous mushrooms grow on forest edges, clearings and small clearings. You can see them sometimes even in a city Park.
- Volcanica excavation. Small hat has a conical shape. With the development of the fungus it deals. In the center you see a small bump. Color of cap can be different: white, cream, purple or light pink. On the edges are visible small cracks. The flesh has an unpleasant odour. Stem thin, not longer than 6 cm It can be straight or slightly curved.
Toxic poison contained in the mushrooms can cause irreparable damage to your health. So, before heading into the forest, carefully study the features of poisonous instances.
Upon detection of the first symptoms of mushroom poisoning, immediately call an ambulance. Self-medication in this case can cost you your life.
Mushrooms containing intestinal toxins
Poisonous mushrooms are those which contain gastrointestinal toxins. The use of this product causes serious gastric and intestinal disorders. The first symptoms after a couple of hours. Human torture nausea, severe headaches, vomiting, and diarrhea. Such poisoning is seldom fatal, but have a negative impact on human health. Such mushrooms include:
- Entoloma poisonous. Most often found on forest edges or close to the shrubs in the young part of the forest. Hat entoloma sufficiently large, its diameter can reach 17 cm It has a white or Nude color. The length of the stalk up to 10 cm Has a regular cylindrical shape and pleasant to the touch velvety surface. Broke entoloma, you will feel a slight scent of fresh flour.
- Yellow mushroom. To identify at large the hat is covered with a thin skin yellowish. In the center you see a small speck of brown. If the hat is pressed, its color changes slightly and becomes more yellow. Hat young specimen has a rounded shape. As they grow older it becomes bell-shaped. Can reach a height of 15 cm the stem is quite thin, not more than 2 cm Inside the hollow. If yellow mushrooms to cook, you will feel a sharp phenolic odor. This fungus actively embarks on growth after summer and autumn rains. You can find it in mixed forests.
- False estimates of location sulfur-yellow. It is widely distributed in the forests of various types. It can be seen on stumps or at the bottom of the tree trunks. The hat has a bell-shaped form and does not exceed the diameter of 5 cm with the development of Armillaria, it becomes flat. In the middle there is a small tubercle. Hollow stem can be smooth and with a slight bend. Its length does not exceed 10 cm and 6 cm in diameter, the Pulp has a bitter taste and specific aroma.
What mushrooms are poisonous, it is better to learn to hike in the woods. So you will save yourself and your family from poisoning and, as a consequence, serious health problems.
Fungi, which include hemolytic poisons
The influence of hemolytic poisons leads to the hemolysis. This is the breakdown of red blood cells, after which the blood becomes homogeneous and okazivaetsa in bright red color. On the background of this problem may develop anemia, leukemia and other blood diseases. Symptoms of poisoning with mushrooms that contain hemolytic poisons appear after 12 hours. In severe intoxication, this time can be reduced to two hours. The first symptoms become extreme fatigue, dizziness, headache, colic in the stomach, vomiting.
Such fungi include gyromitra ordinary. It is possible to find on the sandy soil. He likes to settle on forest edges, roadsides, clearings. Unusual hat. It resembles the human brain. Has folds and grooves. Painted gray, reddish, or brown.
Recent research scientists proved that in the line, in addition to hemolytic poisons, contains giromitrin. It is deadly to humans substance, which is not destroyed even by prolonged boiling. Russian mushrooms gyromitrin concentration is not high, so the lines can have with proper treatment. But for the safety of yourself and your family from the use of such a product should be abandoned.
Mushrooms with content orellanine
Orellanine has a destructive effect on the kidney, respiratory system and musculoskeletal system. Poisoning can take place only two weeks after intoxication. There is a significant increase in urine output, pain in the stomach area, vomiting, feeling of dryness in the mouth. Failure to provide medical care leads to kidney failure and, consequently, death. This substance is included on the following fungi:
- Paulinic plush. Hat does not exceed 8.5 cm in diameter. It looks dull, covered with smallscales. In young specimens it has a spherical shape. As they grow older it becomes flat. Has a brown-red or orange color. Paulinic plush can be seen infrequently. He preferred the neighborhood with oak trees or birch trees, occasionally coniferous trees.
- Paulinic beautiful. The diameter of its cap may vary from 3 to 8 cm. as you grow it changes shape with campanulate to PLANO-convex. At its center is a small tubercle. The hat has an attractive velvety surface, sometimes meeting her scales. Painted in brown-red or brown-red color. The plates grow to a leg. Cylindrical leg has a length of not more than 12 cm more all paulinic beautiful is found in the Central part of Russia and Siberia. He prefers coniferous and mixed forests.
Charming mushroom flavor attracts a large number of fans of silent hunting. But before heading into the forest, carefully review the threat mushrooms and how to distinguish them from edible.