Poisonous plant belladonna (deadly nightshade vulgaris): description, properties
The plant belladonna is a powerful poison and at the same time an effective cure for many diseases. Around it there are a lot of myths and legends. There are other names: belladonna, sleepy stupor, deadly nightshade, witch's grass. The last name of the plant received thanks to the legend according to which it was used by witches to prepare the ointment, allows you to fly. Today, belladonna is widely used for medical purposes. It is used in traditional medicine and also used in folk recipes. It should be remembered that careless use of the sleepy stupor leads to severe poisoning and, in many cases, death. Therefore, it is necessary to remember features of this plant and its use.
That is a deadly
The ordinary belladonna is a perennial herbaceous plant. Under favorable conditions it can grow up to a height of two meters. It belongs to the family Solanaceae.
The stem of a belladonna rather dense, branched and thick. Has a green or purple color. To him petioles attach the leaves are broadly lanceolate in shape. Closer to the top of the plant they have a rich green color. The lower leaves are a little lighter. Sheet's maximum length – 20 cm
Its power of belladonna must have a good developed root system. Rhizome diameter may reach 8 cm depart From him long major roots.
A striking feature of belladonna be large single flowers. The diameter of each of them can reach up to 3 cm. They grow exclusively from the axils of the upper leaves. Shaped like a bell, have a five-toothed Cup. Painted in dirty purple color. The inner part of the flower has faded to a dirty yellow.
The young plants go into the flowering stage since the beginning of August. If belladonna more than a year, the flowering can start in may and last until the end of the growing season.
After flowering, large fruit is formed. It resembles a cherry. Berry has an attractive luster. Painted in a dark purple-blue color. Inside it is a large number of seeds. The flesh has a sweet taste. However, she is deadly poisonous.
Especially dangerous is the use of these berries to children. Eat just one berry, to come to irreparable consequences for health. For an adult human lethal dose is 10 grams.
Where can I meet belladonna
Special distribution a sleepy stupor got in mountainous areas. Found at altitudes up to 1000 meters. She can often be seen in the Caucasus, the Carpathians, and Crimea. Is growing not only in Russia but also in the USA, Asia, South America and Pakistan.
Often find belladonna can be on the outskirts of the roads and edges of forests. It can be single plants or in thickets. Prefers loose soil, rich in humus. Since belladonna loves high humidity, sometimes it can be found on the banks of rivers.
For use in medicine is irrational to look for a place where there's belladonna, and to collect. It is easier to cultivate it deliberately. In our country this specializiruetsya Krasnodar Krai. As in the wild this plant can be found infrequently, it was decided to make it into the Red book of Russia.
What is included in the
Poisonous plant belladonna has a complex chemical composition. The greatest danger and the value is simultaneously alkaloids. According to scientists, the maximum concentration observed in the roots of plants. Less of these substances in the fruit. The plant contains the following types of alkaloids:
- Atropine. Once in the human body, this substance reduces the efficiency of the salivary and sweat glands, increases the frequency of heart muscle contraction, reduces muscle tone, and reduces the acidity of gastric juice, leads to the excitation of breathing. In medicine it is used to treat gastrointestinal, urinary and cardiovascular systems.
- Hyoscyamine. Under the action of the oxygen is oxidized and is converted into atropine.
- Scopolamine. This alkaloid possesses antispasmodic and ganglioblokiruyuschim action, can expand peripheral vessels. It is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
In addition, the leaves of belladonna were found: phenol carbonic, oxalic, eucatropine acid, flavonoids, aliphatic hydrocarbons and other substances.
The risk of belladonna
Atropine, a part of plants, when excessive dosages becomes a strong poison. Belladonna poisoning can have devastating consequences. Among the main symptoms of the problem are the following:
- Unpleasant sensations in the mouth, including burning and dryness.
- Voice distortion or loss.
- Change the color of the skin, the appearance of the rash.
- Dilation of the pupils. They no longer respond to bright light. There is a partial loss of vision.
- The violation of the rhythm of the heart, lowering blood pressure.
- The increased body temperature.
- Raskoordinatsiya movements.
Upon detection of such symptoms should immediately call an ambulance.Before arrival of doctors spend a gastric lavage. For this purpose, a weak solution of potassium permanganate or salt. After that you should take a few tablets of activated charcoal or other sorbent.
First assistance should be provided as early as possible. In severe cases, death occurs after 3 hours after hitting the poison belladonna in the body.
Belladonna, berry that looks delicious, often attracting children. Therefore, going into the forest, explain to your child that you can't eat any berries or plants.
What is it used for belladonna
Despite the fact that belladonna is poisonous, it is widely used for medical purposes. Based on the leaves of the plant are preparing infusions, extracts and other preparations. They are used for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease, tuberculosis, epilepsy and other serious diseases. Means on the basis of belladonna has good anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.
Belladonna preparations have been used in ophthalmology. It is used for pupil dilation of the patient. It helps to conduct a proper examination and accurate diagnosis.
Preparations of belladonna are used to treat the following diseases:
- Bronchial asthma, severe cough.
- Muscle and joint pain.
- Malfunctions of the liver and biliary tract.
- The deposition of kidney stones.
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Problems in the urinary system.
- Gastritis in chronic form.
Application of the juice of the plant topically can get rid of age spots on the skin. In addition, the use of funds on the basis of belladonna increases efficiency, activates the brain, stimulates physical activity.
Often belladonna is used to treat intoxication. It is used in mushroom poisoning and chemical substances.
A sleepy stupor has found application in homeopathy. On its basis made a special pills, which are designed to relieve the patient from the toothache.
The form in which I use the belladonna
Flower belladonna is used in medicine in various forms. It can be used to:
- The tincture.
- The decoctions. Applied strictly in accordance with the dosage calculated by the attending physician.
- Solutions for lotions. They are used to treat skin diseases and joint problems.
- The sulphate of atropine. It is extracted from plants atropine. It is produced in the form of powders.
- Dry and dense extract of belladonna.
- Collection. Tall parts of the plant that are rolled into a cigarette. This tool is used for therapy of bronchial asthma.
- Pills. There are the following drugs:
- "Bellataminalum". It is recommended for relieving irritability, insomnia, vegetative dystonia.
- For the treatment of diseases of the stomach use the "Becarbon". It reduces the acidity of gastric juice and relieves spasms.
- "Bellalgin". Used as an anesthetic drug during spasms in the digestive tract.
- "Bepasal". Used in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Suppositories. The most widely drugs "Claimant" and "Bestial". They are used for the treatment of hemorrhoids and cracks in the anus.
To apply the above drugs without a prescription is strictly prohibited. Dosage is calculated individually based on the disease and condition of the patient. Before beginning treatment, read the description of the drug and methods of its application. Remember that self-medication is extremely dangerous for your life.
Contraindications and side effects
Since the flower belladonna is a poisonous plant, preparations based on it must be taken with caution. Contraindications the main contraindications include:
- Pregnancy and period of lactation Breasts.
- The presence of glaucoma.
- The children's age.
- Serious pathology of the cardiovascular system.
- Intestinal atony, ulcerative colitis, intestinal obstruction, and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- The acute form of atherosclerosis.
- Pulmonary edema.
- Individual intolerance.
People suffering from kidney disease, diaphragmatic hernia and hyperthyroidism to use these drugs only when absolutely necessary. Such treatment should take place under the supervision of a specialist.
Sometimes the use of drugs with belladonna may cause side effects. Often there is headache, impaired speech, increased drowsiness, poor appetite, dry mouth, dizziness, sleep disorder. With caution should use the drug in hot weather. It can cause heat stroke.
Overdose of these substances can be harmful. Its symptoms include:
- Bouts of nausea and vomiting.
- A decrease in sweating.
Upon detection of such symptoms, the drug should be discontinued. Need gastric lavage. After that, consult a doctor. The doctor will be able to correctly adjust the dosage or even stop taking the drug.
Such drugsnot recommended for people whose professional activity requires quick reaction, or due to high concentration of attention.
The cultivation of belladonna
Since belladonna is rarely found in the Russian forests. It can grow at their summer cottage. This process is a little different from cultivation of other plants. Simply follow the basic guidelines:
- To plant belladonna should be on fertile soil. It is best to choose low-lying land, on which is supported a sufficient level of humidity. Belladonna thrives in light soils with good permeability. The best precursors for it are winter crops. You can't grow it after potatoes or tomatoes.
- Before sowing, the soil should be ploughed to a greater depth, as the plant has a strong root system. It is desirable to make fertilizer. Suitable manure. On one hectare of land will need about 30 tons.
- Seeds need to be incorporated into the soil, which is warmed to a temperature at least 20 degrees. For one hectare you will need about 8 pounds of seeds. Seeding depth of not more than 1.5 cm If the soil is very light, this distance is increased to 3 cm.
- Seedlings are small and grow very slowly. They need to be protected from drought, frost and pests. In the first year the plant forms very few flowers and fruits.
- Care is regular watering, weeding and loosening the soil.
Growing it is easy. With all the recommendations you will be able to grow a plant rich in alkaloids. There will be only right to spend preparation of the material, it will be possible to prepare medicines.
How to prepare a belladonna
For the manufacture of medicinal products use the roots and leaves of the plant. So that turned out efficient, deadly flower must be properly harvested and dried.
Procure raw materials can be up to five times per season. The first collection is carried out at the beginning of flowering. It was at this time in the leaves accumulate the maximum amount of valuable substances.
Gather leaves, is possible only manually. Even when industrial harvesting of the use of any mechanical means is not possible. First off all large leaves. Small you can pick only after they fully evolve. To facilitate the collection process, some companies cut off the whole plant. Separate the leaves just after drying.
After the leaves are picked, they are dried. On one square meter of the surface lays a kilogram of leaves. Drying is carried out in a well ventilated area. The leaves should not be exposed to direct sunlight. On the accelerated technology drying is carried out in specialized kilns, where the temperature is maintained at +40 degrees. The concentration of alkaloids in the leaf veins is much higher than in the pulp. Therefore, for the preparation of medicines it is necessary to use the entire sheet without a trace.
The roots of the plants can be harvested only in the third year. Dig them up, clear of the ground. The root neck and all the branches, whose diameter is less than a centimeter, be sure to cut. The remaining rhizomes are cut into pieces of size not more than 10 cm, the roots are Dried in a well ventilated area.
After raw material is dry, it is cleaned from all impurities. After that it can be used for other purposes. Storage it is necessary to organize separately from other workpieces.
Recipes of traditional medicine
To prepare funds on the basis of belladonna can be your own. To do this, here are some simple recipes:
- Broth. Ten grams of dried roots of belladonna and steam it in a Cup of boiling water. The prepared mixture was then heated for 10 minutes. After we chill it slightly, it is filtered. This tool is used to prepare compresses to the joints.
- Tincture. The leaves of belladonna in the amount of 10 grams pour a glass of alcohol. For a week this mixture hiding in a dark place. Before use it is filtered. This remedy is taken orally for the treatment of cholecystitis or kidney stones.
- A decoction from Parkinson's disease. Mix 30 grams of chopped dried rhizomes and crumbled 100 grams of activated charcoal. The resulting composition is poured into 750 ml dry white wine of any variety. To boil on the fire for 10 minutes. The resulting tool profilirovaniya.
- Powder. The dried leaves of the plant are ground into a fine powder. A teaspoon of this means you need to burn and inhale the smoke generated. It helps in the treatment of bronchial asthma. For the treatment of gastritis it is used inside. Thus you can not use it more than fits on the tip of a knife.
- Tincture from insomnia. One part of belladonna leaves pour ten parts vodka. This composition is needed to survive for three weeks in a dark place. Taking him at 15 drops twice a day you can get rid of sleep problems.
In the preparation of such funds should be closely monitored dosages. Any mistakes could have serious consequences for your health. To use such medications only after consulting with your doctor. He also determines the dosage based on the age of the patient,his state of health and characteristics of the disease.
Deadly nightshade – poisonous perennial. But when used correctly it can become the real salvation from many diseases. Before you start this treatment, consult your doctor, carefully review all features of this plant and weigh all advantages and disadvantages.