General characteristics of industrial poisons and their classification
Industrial poisons – it's pretty toxic substances that have a negative impact on workers. Such chemical compounds can be raw materials, as well as some intermediate and fully finished products, they all meet in the industry and in case of accidental contact with a living organism provoke diverse disorders. To determine dangerous effects on the human body developed a General characteristic of industrial poisons and their classification.
Classification of toxic substances used in industry
Classification of industrial poisons is carried out according to various criteria and characteristics, but all of them allow to determine the toxicity of one or another substance. The chemical composition of all such poisons are divided into different groups:
- Organic compounds organic chemistry – alcohols, ether compounds, aldehydes, etc.
- Inorganic elements of different metals and of their compounds, and acids.
- Basic organic compounds.
In addition, all chemicals used in industry, divided in biological action on living organisms. There are such poisons:
- suffocating action;
- drugs with increased volatility, and similar compounds;
- cytoplasmic toxic substances.
All used in the manufacture of poisons, classified, and according to another important characteristic, in terms of impact on human health. Identify the following group of toxic substances:
- General toxic.
Depending on the ways in which toxic substances enter the human body parts such industrial poisons:
All industrial poisons toxic enough, the degree of hazard is determined by the incompatibility of one or the other of a substance with life.
Lethal dose is the amount of the toxic substance, which causes the death of more than 50% of experimental animals for a certain period of time.
Classification of poisons harm
Its toxicity and hazards of all industrial poisons are divided into the following groups:
- very toxic;
- highly toxic;
- not very toxic;
- slightly toxic.
The level of effects on the human body all the poisons in the industry are divided into several classes:
- 1st class – highly hazardous chemicals;
- 2nd class – highly hazardous components;
- 3rd class – moderately harmful elements;
- 4th class of substances that pose a small risk.
All the characteristics of such possible hazards are divided into two groups. The first group includes characteristics such as the volatility of the substance and its possible solubility in water and fats. The second group includes such factors as taksometri and its derivatives.
A chemical is considered more dangerous and more toxic, the smaller the gap at doses that cause mild signs of intoxication and those that lead to death.
Feature on hygienic grounds
Industrial poisons have different physical characteristics, including boiling point, volatility and vapour density. All these properties determine the behavior of chemical elements in different environmental conditions, as well as be a decisive factor in the organization conditions for normal work. There are several patterns of possible action of toxic substances on the human body.
The severity of toxic effects of chemical substances depend on their physical condition and the ways in which they can get into the body. In terms of industrial poisons can be in diverse phases – gas, steam, different fluid, aerosol substances, solid components, and various blends. They get into the human body through the respiratory organs, digestive tract, skin, and sometimes through the eyes.
Very often, toxic effects produce vapours, aerosols, gases, and other elements that are characterized by high volatility. This is due to a large volume of air that passes through the lung tissue, especially if work is connected with physical activity. Subject to such terms, conditions, poisons almost instantly into the blood and go to all organs.
Second in importance and frequency of intoxication is considered to be the oral route. This can be explained by the fact that the toxins are in the air of industrial premises, dissolves in the saliva and start to be absorbed already in the mouth, then the absorption of toxic components continues in the stomach and in the intestine.
Industrial poisons get into the digestive organs, if the violation of the occupational health. The toxins enter the stomach together with water or food.
There are compounds that seep into the body through the skin, they are characterized by excellent solubility in various fats, that enables them to be layer of the epidermis. At the same time, good solubility in water helps to get them into the bloodstream and spread to all organs. Such substances include benzene and similar compoundscertain pesticides, nitro compounds, ORGANOMETALLIC and chlorinated compounds.
The characteristic effects on the human body all production poisons are divided into certain groups:
- Substances that primarily affect the respiratory organs.
Many chemical compounds can be simultaneously cause both acute and severe chronic poisoning.
Chemicals leave the body through sweat, saliva, urine or feces. Many of them penetrate into breast milk and through the placental barrier, providing a devastating effect on the child. Toxins can be excreted from the body in unchanged form and as metabolites.
The impact of poisons on humans
Manufacturing businesses can be different according to the severity of intoxication:
- Acute poisoning. Such poisoning develop very quickly, especially if the air increased concentration of toxic compounds.
- Subacute toxicity. Such poisoning do not occur immediately, the person some time be in contact with toxic compounds.
- Chronic poisoning. Such intoxications occur if the production room is small doses of toxic components, but people are constantly in contact with them. Gradually the body builds up a dangerous concentration, and exhibit all the symptoms of poisoning.
Many chemical compounds can be simultaneously cause both acute and severe chronic poisoning.
The prevention of poisoning in the production
To reduce the frequency of poisoning in enterprises, it is necessary to observe a number of preventive measures. All new chemicals must be carefully selected, is their Toxicological evaluation. Possible exposure of toxic substances on the team is gradually reduced.
If you are developing innovative chemical compound, it is necessary to evaluate its toxicity and the nature of the negative impact on the body. All this is necessary for the development of new normative documents which will regulate the work with this item. It is worth remembering that the maximum permissible concentration of harmful substances (MPC) throughout the working period should not lead to chronic disease or other health problems. But it is worth remembering that the maximum permissible concentrations can cause various health disorders in individuals who are especially sensitive to chemical compounds.
Maximum allowable biological concentration (BPD) is the degree of the toxic component into the body of workers. For the study come from samples of hair, saliva, urine, blood and exhaled air necessarily. The BAP should not provoke health problems in the period of work in the workplace, and in a more remote period of time.
Additional preventive measures
To reduce the negative impact of industrial poisons that often cause various dangerous diseases, taking a number of measures:
- Automatiseret and mechanize hazardous industry.
- Seal the equipment and use particular communications that are the source of industrial poisons.
- Equip industrial facilities with modern and effective ventilation systems.
- Dangerous objects blocking set the alarm.
- Provide workers with modern individual protection means.
- Carry out other preventive measures aimed at prevention of cases of poisoning.
The people who work in hazardous industries, should be required once a year get a check-up. In addition, a work issued for the harmfulness of the milk at the rate of 0.5 litres per shift.
Hygienic standards are established based on the following rules:
- Performed Toxicological studies are carried out preventive measures, the introduction of innovative technological processes. The inclusion in the production process of any equipment, as well as new chemical components should be effortlessly.
- Conduct the overall analysis of the cases of diseases and compares it with the previous standards.
- Determine limit the harmful effects of a chemical component in the human body.
It is worth remembering that not all human response to toxic substance can be considered as the threshold of harmful action. Such reactions are only those, which are characterized by hygiene factor. After the innovative chemical substance introduced into the production process, usually after about 5 years, perform accreditation of workplaces, and the incidence of diseases of the team over a certain period. The main purpose of this analysis is to establish a secure environment on the basis of the obtained data.
In the case where industrial poisons enter the human body through solid skin, and cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes, it is necessary to use special means of individual protection, the people'scalled clothing. If observed exceeded the air concentrations of toxic substances, it is necessary to use gas masks and respirators of different designs.
Standards for the issuance of workwear designed for each hazardous industries individually.
The action of carbon monoxide on the body
Common toxic compound is thought to be carbon monoxide, which is formed by incomplete combustion of carbonaceous substances. Carbon monoxide is a very aggressive compound, which readily combines with hemoglobin and causes severe poisoning. Intoxication with this gas are such disorders:
- deteriorating eyesight, and as if a person is lost in time;
- violated psychomotor functions;
- disrupted the heart and lungs;
- appear cramps;
- there is atypical drowsiness.
With a strong degree of poisoning, impaired breathing and death can occur.
We must remember that carbon monoxide has no color and noticeable smell, so poisonings often happen quickly.
Poisoning by sulphur dioxide
This gas is produced during industrial processing of sulfide ores. This gas is characterized by a strong irritating property, it adversely affects the respiratory organs and the mucous membrane of the organs of vision. In addition, sulfur dioxide affects metabolism and can cause serious pathology. With a strong intoxication by sulfur dioxide have these disorders:
- irritated eyes;
- throat pain is felt and severe pain;
- you receive an easy cough and hoarseness;
- there diarrheal disorders;
- occurs edema of the lungs.
If a strong poisoning of the body violated all metabolic processes, deteriorating liver function, brain and heart. The composition of the blood is greatly changed, there is pain in muscles and joints. In women disrupted menstrual cycle.
Industrial poisons can cause serious health problems and even death. It is very important to observe hygiene of production, especially if it involves harmful chemicals.