What is a thiol poisons and their effects on the human body
At home and at work every person is periodically in contact with various poisons. Quite common are thiol poisons, including mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic and many other. All of these toxic substances have the distinguishing feature. They are able to react with some macromolecules in the body. Such macromolecules include enzymes, proteins and certain amino acids. These substances play an important role in normal metabolism and the vital functions of the body.
Thiol poisons – a blockers separate the sulfhydryl groups of molecules. To the thiol poisons include mercury. This substance is unchanged is used in the manufacture of drugs, pesticides and explosives. In addition, this chemical element often used for filling and measuring instruments – thermometers and barometers.
In industry, greater use of inorganic mercury compounds. These include the mercuric chloride, which is often used for the treatment of steel. Zulema lead to fatal poisoning. If the inside of the body gets only 0.2 grams of this chemical element. Mercury vapor and any of its compounds, entering the body, lead to such pathologies:
- Affected digestive tract.
- Disturbances of the nervous system.
- Deteriorating kidney function.
If toxicity is too heavy, it is observed the disorder of mental nature and disturbed motor activity.
Mercury compounds are slowly eliminated by the kidneys and various glands. In conclusion mercury compounds are included even the mammary glands. The nature of the secretions is possible to determine not only the degree of intoxication, but also the effectiveness of the treatment.
The antidotes to mercury are several drugs. First of all, it Unitiol, which instantly binds mercury compounds. Intramuscular injection of the drug begins to act after a couple of minutes. If the person is fully conscious, Unithiol can be taken orally.
Effective antidote is the antidote Strezhevskoi that well binds mercury compounds. This drug is used only in a hospital.
As an antidote to mercury you can use raw egg whites, whole milk and magnesium sulfate.
This thiol poison widely distributed in light and heavy industry. The lead used for the manufacture of batteries, paint and enamel. Used lead compounds in the printing business. People can get poisoned by eating food and water that have long been kept in a pot with a lead cover. Severe poisoning has been observed in the use of 2 grams of salt of lead, for example, acetate.
Trapped in the body, lead is rapidly absorbed into all organs and tissues, but most of it accumulates in the bones and blood cells erythrocytes. When the lead poisoning observed the following disorders:
- Disrupted nervous system.
- Inhibited the process of hematopoiesis.
- Disturbances of the digestive tract and liver.
When lead poisoning in humans can be strong abdominal cramps, anemia, and then paralysis. Is often spasm of the blood vessels. From the body lead compounds excreted in the urine and feces.
When lead poisoning using such antidotes:
- Of the calcium salt.
- The dimercaprol isn.
All these medications quickly bind heavy metals and eliminate them from the body.
In chronic intoxication with lead and its compounds develops infertility.
Such a thiol poison, as arsenic is widely used in glass, dye and pharmaceutical industry. Pure arsenic is considered to be completely harmless, but the salts and oxides formed by them are very toxic. Special danger to life is arsenic anhydride, aka white arsenic. While consuming only 60 mg of this substance a person dies.
Most often, arsenic enters the body in the form of fine dust, and with food and water. Arsenic compounds tend to accumulate in the bones, the hair, the skin and the cells of the liver. In cases of poisoning by salts and oxides of arsenic are observed these symptoms:
- Firmly falling blood pressure.
- Increased fragility of vascular walls.
- Observed pathology of the nervous system.
- Possible paralysis.
In severe intoxication, violated the metabolic processes in the body that can lead to irreversible consequences.
The antidote for arsenic is considered to be a mixture of magnesia and sulphate of iron. The connection of these elements is formed iron hydroxide and magnesium sulfate.
A good antidote to arsenic is considered a very concentrated alkaline solution of hydrogen sulfide, with the addition of magnesium sulfate. Before use, this composition affected give 3 grams of citric acid dissolved in a glass of water.
In the arsenic poisoning of a man suffering from severe muscle weakness. If you do not help, then very quickly progressing to paralysis and death.
Cadmium and its compounds and salts are used extensively in the steel and battery manufacturing. Use this substance inthe production of paints and even in nuclear reactors as a neutron absorber. To poison, it is sufficient to take only 50 mg of this chemical.
Fumes and dust of cadmium toxic effect on the human body and cause such disorders:
- Affects the respiratory system. Manifested severe cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary edema.
- Occur dyspeptic symptoms – nausea, vomiting and irregularity.
- Observed kidney and liver failure.
When cadmium poisoning the metabolism, causing reduced bone strength and the excretion of plasma proteins along with urine.
The antidote of cadmium is the drug Unitiol. It is administered 3 times a day, for weeks. Also a good antidote is selenium, which lowers the absorption of cadmium in the body.
If severe cadmium poisoning in a timely manner not to render aid to the victim, the death occurs some days later. Assistance should be provided only in a hospital.
The people who work with heavy metals, should observe safety precautions and conduct regular maintenance inspection.
Source of thiol poisons are industrial enterprise that dumped waste into the waste water. In natural waters increases every year the amount of heavy metals. In some countries there have been mass poisoning with mercury and other poisons, which cause the poisoned fish. To reduce the harmful effects of thiol poisons on the human body, you need to use at the enterprises of modern treatment facilities.