Food poisoning in an adult: symptoms and treatment
Food poisoning in an adult may occur for many reasons. In severe it can lead to serious disturbances in the internal organs. In this article we have considered food poisoning in an adult, the symptoms and treatment of this disease, the basics of its prevention.
The causes of food poisoning
The poisoning of food can occur for a huge number of reasons:
- Cooking person that is infected with a bacterial intestinal infection. Pathogenic microorganisms get into food through poorly washed hands after using the restroom.
- The use of expired food, spoiled and rotten food. Even fresh food failure to comply with retention rules can be dangerous, it starts bacteria that can cause acute toxicity.
- Eating foods infected with intestinal infection. They can be fresh and normal taste. Especially dangerous is fish, meat, mushrooms and dairy products.
- Poisoning canned foodcontaminated with botulism. This infection can develop in meat, fish, canned vegetables, jam and compote closed.
- Failure to follow the basics of personal hygiene. Through dirty hands you can become infected with E. coli.
Remember that people with weakened immune systems, chronic diseases of the digestive system and pregnant women are more prone to poisoning.
The main clinical manifestations of food poisoning
The symptoms of food poisoning in adults developing in an average of 4-8 hours after eating poor quality food. In botulism, they can occur in 1-2 days. The severity of the condition depends on the amount eaten and the type of toxin or pathogen.
Please note that in case of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms symptoms can occur within 15-20 minutes after a meal.
The main symptoms of food poisoning:
- nausea and vomiting are the first symptoms of poisoning. Through vomiting, the body tries to get rid of low-quality food. In the vomit can see the remains of food, gastric juice, mucus, and bile. vomiting brings temporary relief to the patient, but after a while, the nausea returned;
- abdominal pain localized in the stomach and intestines. It may be dull, aching or sharp. With the development of pancreatic lesion encircling the pain becomes unbearable;
- diarrhea usually multiple and plentiful. When salmonellosis chair painted green, and in dysentery it is watery, may contain streaks of blood. Profuse diarrhea leads to rapid dehydration;
- the increase in body temperature is characteristic of intestinal bacterial infection. Hyperthermia can also be a symptom of acute gastritis or pancreatitis (common complications of poisoning);
- tachycardia (rapid heart rate) can occur due to intoxication, dehydration and elevated body temperature;
- shortness of breath – a sign of the serious condition of the patient. Breathing becomes rapid, more superficial;
- headache, weakness, pale skin, signs of severe poisoning.
In the case of acute poisoning, lesions of poisonous mushrooms may work the Central nervous system. At poisoned person may have convulsions, disturbed consciousness. In critical cases, the patient falls into a deep coma. May stop breathing and heartbeats.
The provision of first aid for poisoning
What to do in case of poisoning food at home? Remember that to self-medicate this disease is strictly prohibited. The first call for an ambulance. Only doctors can accurately assess the severity of the patient and tell whether he needs hospitalization.
While the team of SMP goes to you, start yourself poisoned to render first aid.
Than to treat the patient with food poisoning before the ambulance arrived.
In order to self-wash out the stomach, you should quickly drink a liter of water, and snatch it up. It is advisable to repeat this procedure several times.
Catharsis is necessary for deducing from it the remnants of the poisoned food which had not yet absorbed. In the case of severe poisoning, this procedure helps to save the patient's life.
Gastric lavage is strictly prohibited during the appearance of vomiting black. This symptom indicates the beginning of gastro-intestinal bleeding. Complications of poisoning can develop in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer.
Enema helps to remove intestinal toxins and pathogenic bacteria. It is a simple boiled water. Its temperature should be room. Enema is repeated several times until a clean intestinal wash water.
While food poisoning can use any of the sorbents, which is a home kit (activated carbon, smectite, sorbex, APSCO, etc.). Before hiring check their expiration date and carefully read the rules for dosing.
Drugs groupssorbents are very effective for food poisoning. They neutralize and eliminate the remnants of the toxins, bacteria and reduce diarrhea.
Before arrival of doctors the patient drink non-carbonated mineral or table water, sweet tea. It is best to drink slowly, little and often. So you will not provoke repeated vomiting.
What to do in case of unconsciousness
If the patient has lost consciousness, lay it on a hard surface. It is best to lift his legs up, this will ensure blood flow to the heart and brain. To prevent choking on vomit, and the tongue, turn his head to one side.
If you have ammonia, moisten them with cotton wool and let it breathe man. The sharp smell will awaken him.
No reaction for ammonia indicate that the development of comatose state. Before arrival of doctors to monitor the pulse and breathing of the patient.
Check the pulse on the neck in the region of the carotid artery, and respiration – the patient putting hand on chest. In the case of cessation of breathing and heartbeat should start doing chest compressions.
First aid for poisoning
The first medical treatment for food poisoning in adults is carried out by the ambulance, which arrived on a call. They conduct the examination of the patient, collect anamnesis (medical history), check the pulse, blood pressure, saturation and respiration. They then proceed to the first aid, which consists of:
- the introduction of drugs to eliminate nausea and vomiting (reglan, metoclopramide or osetron). These drugs act on the vomiting center and quickly eliminate the symptoms;
- droppers with solutions to reduce intoxication and treatment of dehydration, electrolyte failure in the body;
- antispasmodic drugs, which eliminate stomach pain, intestinal colic;
- oxygen therapy through a mask.
Then the doctors decide whether to hospitalize the patient. Patients with lung disease can be treated at home. In severe condition, the patient hospitalityat in infectious diseases or intensive care unit where he later conducted his examination or treatment.
Treatment of poisoning in the home
How to treat food poisoning at home? Diet and drugs are prescribed to family or General practitioner. Self-medicate to deal strictly prohibited. All drugs should be agreed with the doctor.
The major components of the home treatment listed below.
During treatment, poisoning the patient needs complete rest. Forbidden to attend school, work, household chores or sports.
You should lie in a well-ventilated room. Wet cleaning should be carried out every day.
Diet and drink
Diet – the mainstay of treatment. It is strictly forbidden to drink alcohol, coffee, carbonated drinks, Smoking. It is necessary to refuse from sweet, smoked, fatty and spicy foods.
You need to eat little and often. The size of a single serving should not exceed the size of the palm of the patient. Eat:
- rice, oatmeal and buckwheat porridge;
- chicken broth;
- lean meat chicken;
- bananas, baked apples;
- dried white bread and app cookies;
- steamed or boiled vegetables.
The antibiotics prescribed by the doctor with intestinal infection. They must be taken strictly according to the scheme.
These drugs are taken if you experience abdominal pain. They help remove intestinal colic and flatulence. Antispasmodics: no-Spa, drotaverine, platifillin.
Enzymes are appointed for the regulation of digestion and the pancreas. They are taken during meals. Drugs: Kreon, Mezim, pankreatin.
These drugs are prescribed to restore the intestinal microflora after poisonings, and antibiotics. Preparations: lineks, bifidumbakterin.
Prevention of poisoning
Permanent prevention of poisoning will help you to protect yourself and loved ones from this disease. The following are guidelines that you should follow constantly:
- When buying or using food check the date of manufacturing, inspect packaging integrity. Meat and fish it is advisable to sniff.
- Purchase food only official and licensed retail outlets. Forget about natural markets.
- Thoroughly wash hands, utensils and food.
- Store food correctly. Perishable products must be stored in the refrigerator.
- Do not re-freeze meat or fish. This can lead to reproduction it putrefactive bacteria.
- Don't buy ready meals. It is best not to be lazy and cook their meals. The only way you will know what, how and in what conditions it is made.
Food poisoning in adults can happen for many reasons. Its therapy should be taken seriously. When the first symptoms of the disease call for an ambulance. Until you go to the doctors, the patient to rinse intestines and stomach, give a Cup of water and sorbents. Light poisoning can be treated at homeconditions after a prescription diet and medication. It is not necessary to self-medicate. Take care of your health.