Svinushek poisoning: symptoms, signs poisonous mushroom
The pig-face, thin from the list of edible mushrooms have been eliminated in 1984, but, despite this, still eat. For the first time that a mushroom is poisonous, noted by the German botanist and microbiolog Julius Schaeffer for his poisoning svinushek ended in death.
By eating a large number of mushrooms that are considered edible, the scientist started vomiting began stomach upset and fever after 17 days he died of kidney pathology.
The types svinushek
Family svinushek includes 8 species.
In our country there are two species of fungi:
- the pig-face, thin, common names Tweety, barn, svinua and others;
- the pig-face, thick, or felt.
I believe that biological poison contained in the svinushek fat is dicyclopentane, which is destroyed when heated.
In our country, the pig-face of the felt is considered a conditionally-toxic, and consume it after prolonged heat treatment. First, it is necessary during the day to soak, changing the water several times. Then boil in three waters for 4 hours. And then the mushrooms can be salted, pickled or fried.
First, the pig-face, thin and thick similar to each other, and most common is the thin pig-face, which is poisonous.
Second, the poisoning svinyami develops not at once: it is necessary that the poison accumulated in the body. But the amount of poison that can cause different people have symptoms of intoxication, significantly different. Some throughout life eat these mushrooms and feel great, others quite a few times, to be in intensive care, after which not always manages to survive.
Scientists have proved that pig contain unknown substances which when injected in the body begin to produced antibodies. This leads to the formation of the complex antigen - antibody.
Over time, these complexes break down, but the next time you use svinushek in the food they are newly formed, that is, the toxin accumulates. The red blood cells disintegrate and leaves the hemoglobin, which causes hemolytic anemia.
The clinical picture
Symptoms of intoxication svinushek depend on the characteristics of the immune system and deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Since the use of mushrooms occurs toxic-allergic reaction, in single dose symptoms of poisoning are observed.
If a person is observed hypersensitivity to svinushek, the clinical picture of intoxication develops after 1-3 hours after eating. In these patients, the re-use of mushrooms can cause hemolysis, impaired function of heart, liver and kidneys or death.
Intoxication, occurring in mild, ends happily. After 1-3 hours after eating svinushek, sometimes 5-6, there are signs of ingestion of poisons.
Easy svinushek poisoning has the following symptoms:
- intermittent abdominal pain, which change their location and severity;
- acute gastroenteritis;
- cold hands and feet;
- lower back pain;
- renal and hepatic insufficiency I degree.
Symptoms of intoxication depend on how much was eaten poisonous mushrooms. 48-72 hours after the poisoning subside symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, and the condition of the patient improves.
When intoxication moderate severity observed hepatic insufficiency II degree and renal insufficiency I degree. The liver is slightly increased in size, increased levels of bilirubin and enzymes in blood.
With the development of renal insufficiency of II degree is observed the reduction in the amount of urine passed during the day and an increase in the level of nitrogen in the blood. In the first three days observed the strengthening of processes of lipid peroxidation, and on the 8th day increase the level of antioxidants.
In severe intoxication, which can develop after consumption of raw svinushek or if insufficient heat treatment, on the background of dehydration observed cardiovascular, renal and hepatic failure. Possible organic brain damage, which may be accompanied by loss of consciousness.
A blood test will show the destruction of red blood cells, elevated levels of bilirubin, liver enzymes and creatinine. Developing thrombohemorrhagic syndrome. A positive outcome in this case depends on how quickly will be provided with adequate medical assistance.
Feature of poisoning svinushek is as follows:
- signs of intoxication develop during repeated use of mushrooms in food;
- the severity of poisoning depends on the amount of venom in the body;
- the latent period in cases of poisoning by svinushek shorter than if poisoning pale toadstool;
- it is affected primarily weakened categories of citizens (children, elderly);
- I believe that the signs of intoxication develop in people suffering from pathologies of the immune system and a deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Diagnose is based on clinical grounds and results of the survey. The latent period poisoningpig-face, can vary from 1 to 9 hours.
Your doctor may prescribe:
- General and biochemical blood analysis that can help to detect elevated levels of bilirubin, liver enzymes and creatinine, as red blood cells;
- a urine test, which can detect oliguria;
- Ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound, which, depending on the severity of intoxication reveal the enlargement of the liver and disorder of its blood supply;
- scintigraphy and hepatography that can detect a liver dysfunction and the deterioration of its blood supply.
If you have mushrooms that are eaten, they also need to bring to the examination.
Therapy poisoning svinushek
Treatment of poisoning svinushek should take place only in hospital settings. You need to remember that the sooner treated, the more favorable the prognosis. There is no specific antidote, so treatment is symptomatic.
For udivlenie toxins from the body shown gastric lavage. If the patient is conscious, he can start to wash out the stomach before the arrival of the ambulance. For this purpose he is given to drink pure water and tap on the root of the tongue. The procedure is performed until the stomach will come out relatively clean vomit.
If the poisoning occurs in a child, that he not drowned, he is given to drink the liquid, put on my lap and tap on the root of the tongue.
Since the basis of lies poisoning toxic-allergic reaction, before the ambulance can give the victim an antihistamine I generation, which include:
In any case can not try to stop vomiting and diarrhea, to give to secure the chair drugs based on loperamide, as it may only worsen the health of the patient.
The fact that vomiting and diarrhea are defensive mechanisms that help to flush toxins from the body. If them to eliminate, harmful substances will accumulate in the body, which will only exacerbate the symptoms of poisoning.
In the hospital, depending on the severity of the intoxication, can be assigned:
- intestinal lavage;
- cleansing the blood using plasmapheresis, hemosorption, "Bioartificial liver", if there is liver failure;
- hemodialysis is shown in the development of renal insufficient;
- drugs that helps to maintain the activity of the cardiovascular system;
- medicines that restore the water-salt balance;
- antihistamines, which help to reduce the severity of autoimmune reactions;
- corticosteroids, for example prednisone, which prevents the destruction of red blood cells, consequently, the risk of complications.
You need to remember that if after eating mushrooms of any observed toxicity, it is necessary to quickly deliver the victim to the hospital, it is from this often depends on if I survive the patient.
Prevention of mushroom poisoning
To reduce the risk of poisoning any mushrooms, you need to follow some rules:
- You can collect only the familiar mushrooms.
- It is impossible to collect old and overgrown specimens.
- You should not take pig growing along the route or in the proximity of factories as they quickly accumulate harmful substances such as heavy metals and radioactive isotopes, and their number in the mushrooms several times higher than its content in the soil.
- Not worth the fungi often enter the menu, as it is heavy to digest food. They are especially not recommended for patients suffering from diseases of the digestive system.
- Before the use of conditionally-edible fungi they need to be subjected to prolonged treatment. First soak it in several waters during the day. Then boil in three waters for 4 hours. Their willingness to determine when they will settle on the bottom of the pan. In the last of the water in which you cooked the mushrooms, you have to throw the whole onion. If it change color, blue or green, then svinushek should be abandoned, since it indicates that the pan is a poisonous mushroom. Thus, it is possible to check and other fungi.
- No mushrooms are not subject to long storage, even in the refrigerator.
You can, of course, continue to argue, pig poisonous or not, perhaps, in some families from generation to generation ate their food and all living things. But where is the guarantee that next time will not be the last, as happened with the German scientist Julius Schaeffer, who died from them at age 62. But he was well versed in the mushrooms, as shone their study almost all of his life. Is it worth risking your health and the health of their loved ones, because in the woods you can find a lot of edible mushrooms.