Muscarine poisoning: symptoms, toxic effect
Muscarine is an alkaloid of natural origin, which is found in some poisonous mushrooms. Despite the strong toxicity of chemical compounds, traditional healers use the tincture of fly agaric for the treatment of cancer. Of these mushrooms, people with drug dependence are prepared in solutions, causing euphoria and hallucinations. So muscarina poisoning is not a rarity. In case of overdose or fatal error in the collection of mushrooms develops intoxication, sometimes ending in the death of a person.
The structure of the toxin has still not been established, therefore, chemists use the empirical formula of natural muscarine. Alkaloid is a thick liquid with neutral odor and flavor with a basic PH. If after drying to the dry mixture add a few drops of any inorganic acids to occur rapid chemical reaction. The result will be the formation of small colourless crystals of muscarine, unstable outdoors. It only takes a few minutes to alkaloid has lost its solid form and took the syrupy kind.
Interesting fact – muscarin synthesized in the laboratory differs significantly from that contained in the fly agaric. When conducting experiments on amphibians were not established the identity of artificial and natural alkaloids.
Muscarin able to quickly dissolve in water and alcohol-containing liquids, but in the air it is absolutely insoluble. Toxic substance manifests itself in the process of chemical reactions as follows:
- At the boiling point of water the alkaloid decomposes with the formation of weak aroma of tobacco smoke.
- If you handle liquid muscarin oxide of lead or a strong base, a tertiary amine, flammable and hygroscopic.
- Hydrochloric and sulfuric acid hydrolyze alkaloid, turning it into colorless crystals.
Scientists tried to allocate natural muscarin at the beginning of last century. Was obtained toxic compounds from the urine of rabbits, cats and the rotting corpse of cod. But they are just isomers of mushroom muscarine. It does not prevent to combine all of the alkaloids in one group and not to attempt to synthesize an artificial toxin, which is a complete analog of the poison from toadstools.
The value of muscarine for medicine and toxicology
Natural mushroom alkaloids, and synthetic, are used for the treatment of diseases. In pharmacology, medicine, toxicology studies muscarine for possible use as drugs. A few decades ago, doctors tried to use a toxic chemical to relieve symptoms of epilepsy, benign and malignant tumors.
Weak dilutions of muscarine previously treated inflammatory eye diseases, glandular swellings, sores. But the frequent occurrence of poisoning nullify such attempts of treatment of diseases.
Alkaloid refers to a form parasympathicotonic toxins. This group of poisons exciting acts on the peripheral nervous system, showing a selective effect. Rare ability holds great promise for further study of the physico-chemical properties of muscarine, its potential use in the treatment of various pathologies.
The toxic compound is used in experimental studies to examine the functional activity of cholinergic processes, structure of cholinergic receptors. After administration of small doses of the alkaloid amphibians were diagnosed with the abnormal heart rhythm. If the amount of poison was above average, the systolic reduction was first slowed and became weaker. And diastolic phase was characterized by full cardiac arrest. Muscarine isolated from fungi, has the following properties:
- increases the secretion of bile, increases the separation of the pancreatic juice;
- activates glands located in the digestive tract;
- increases the activity of salivary, sweat and lacrimal glands.
Muscarin irritates nerve endings, causing enhanced operation of any gland. The study of the alkaloid allowed scientists to synthesize effective antidote. With the introduction of the antidote in various stages of poisoning were noted full recovery of those injured.
How is it possible to overdose muscarina
The collection and processing of mushrooms should be extremely careful. Of course, large bright mushroom is difficult to confuse with other members of the mushroom Kingdom. But fruiting bodies with red hats are not the primary source of muscarine. Special poisonous mushroom gives a combination of poisons, which they use for killing harmful insects and slugs.
Fans of silent hunting often become poisoned in the collection of conditionally-edible fungi containing muscarin. Some forest gifts accumulate a large amount of venom in the autumn, without exerting toxic effects on the human body at another time.
In addition to red and pantherina fly agaric, muscarin contains the following mushrooms:
- Different types of volcanic.
- Talkie Tina cracked.
- Talkie Tinawhitish.
- Talkie Tina voskovaja.
- Pink mycena.
A large number of muscarine found in the mushrooms belonging to the family pauliniova, especially in hebeloma and pod borer. Preparation of forest berries by the method of dry salting, without preliminary heat treatment is extremely dangerous. Any of the above fungi, once in the tub with edible fruit bodies in a single instance, will provoke acute muscarinic poisoning.
Toxicologists have long warned about the presence of high doses of alkaloid in delicious svinushek. Insidious of these fungi lies in the ability of Mature specimens cumulate muscarin in significant concentrations. In the use of the pig colon doctors often diagnosed poisoning, the main feature of which is the breach of the intestine.
The mechanism of poisoning of the natural alkaloid
Since the alkaloid refers to amines, it possesses the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barriers (physiological barrier between the blood stream and Central nervous system). Muscarine is no damaging effect on the Central nervous system, but it provokes a decrease in functional activity of peripheral nerve endings. Under its influence selectively excited cholinergic receptor, called the M-receptors or muscarinic receptors. After increasing their activity:
- dilate blood vessels (veins, arteries, capillaries);
- occurs spasm smooth muscles;
- slowing heart rate.
In case of poisoning to significant doses of alkaloid rhythm is so weakened that there would be a full cardiac arrest.
Intoxication muscarina accompanied by a strong spasm of smooth muscle fibers. This is particularly noticeable in a person with deficiency of body weight in the abdomen visible undulating, chaotic motion in the exercise of peristalsis.
Reduction of the intestine is especially dangerous for pregnant women as it can cause miscarriage in any trimester. So gynecologists recommend that when carrying a child and lactation is to abandon the use of dishes with mushrooms. Especially dangerous fruit body muscarina that apply to conditionally edible species.
Symptoms of muscarinic poisoning
Signs of intoxication with Amanita resemble the symptoms of poisoning m-holinomimetikami, including muskarinom. But there are differences, because these mushrooms contain other toxic compounds that have similar properties atropine. Such poisons can control Deplete the nerve endings of action of muscarine and cause its characteristic symptoms.
The totality of symptoms of atropine and muscarine in cases of poisoning by Amanita leads to the characteristic clinical picture. The victim in the body partially loses the ability to blood clotting, which can cause internal bleeding.
After the use of mushrooms containing only muscarin, in humans, symptoms of poisoning with this alkaloid. Stimulating effect of toxic substances on smooth muscle fibers causes a strong reduction of the gastric wall, spleen, tunica of the bladder. Ingestion of even low doses of muscarine provoke the following symptoms:
- Develops hyperthermia, which causes fever, chills, cold sweats.
- Disrupted gastrointestinal tract. The victim nausea, then open vomiting. With little doses of muscarine people suffer from sour belching, flatulence, bloating, epigastric pain, feeling of bitterness in the mouth.
- For this type of poisoning characterized by diarrhea and involuntary bowel movements.
- Visible symptoms include bright blush, profuse sweating, pallor and dry skin, dilated pupils.
- Heart rate slows, the pulse is thready, breathing shallow and labored.
- It disrupted the work of the urinary system, the urine acquires a dark color and unpleasant smell.
- Emerging minor hypertension replaced by the sharp pressure drop to the lower readings. Perhaps the development of collapse because of declining volume and velocity of circulating blood.
20 minutes first development of poisoning the victim there is a tremor of the upper and lower limbs, which goes into intense convulsions. The person experiences worry, fear, dizziness, drowsiness. After half an hour, disturbed coordination of movements, reduced tendon and muscle reflexes.
An important symptom of poisoning is the spasm of accommodation, false myopia causing a temporary visual disturbances. Muscarine cannot distinguish objects from him at arm's length. Women who are nursing, starting to leak milk.
Cause of death from intoxication muscarina always be respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Coma if untreated lasts for 1-2 days and then the person dies. If the dose of toxic substances was negligible, the forecast for the fullrecovery is favorable.
First aid for poisoning
Lethal dose of muscarine is 0.5 g. If you experience even minor symptoms, you should immediately call an ambulance. Before the arrival of the doctor it is necessary to alleviate the condition of the victim, taking the following measures:
- lay person on side to reassure;
- induce vomiting pale pink solution of potassium permanganate until the discharge from the stomach of pure water;
- give the victim binding toxins drugs: adsorbents or sorbents.
Well will connect muscarin strong sweet tea, as it contains a lot of tannin. Doctor if necessary hospitalitynet patient, an antidote, put on a drip with saline and glucose. It is impossible to conduct individual treatment with antispasmodics or diuretics. Ignorance of the mechanisms of toxicity will lead to serious complications, including death.