The pale toadstool poisoning: symptoms, treatment, first aid
Among the food poisoning special place on the complexity of occurrence and the possible consequences is a poisoning pale toadstool. In 90% of cases the disease is fatal. Therefore, the mushroom-lovers, it is important to understand the differences between the edible Russula from poisonous toadstools and how to recognize the first signs of poisoning. Below you will learn what will happen if you eat a toadstool and how to act in this case.
Distinguishing features pale toadstool
At first glance, the toadstool is very similar to Russula or mushrooms, but not mushroom has some features of the structure.
So immature it has an ovoid shape and is completely surrounded by the film. The cap of hemispherical shape in the diameter can range from 5 to 15 cm. the Color can vary from olive to greyish, with the center darker and the edges lighter. This fungus is fleshy white pulp, having the smell of raw potatoes.
The main feature of the grebes – the presence on the stem of the belt, which is not edible mushrooms. In addition, the lower part of her legs is surrounded by a membranous pouch 3-5 cm in diameter – a Volvo. These two characteristics, you can distinguish a toadstool from an edible counterparts.
The effects of the poison pale toadstool on the body
In the composition of the pale toadstool, there are two types of toxins, has a devastating effect on human organs: phalloidin and alpha amanitin. They have different speed, but high toxicity. The poison pale toadstool is not destroyed under the influence of high temperatures, freezing, drying, vinegar or alcohol.
When intake of toxins are amenable to digestion in the intestine. They get into the liver, affecting its cells. In addition, intoxication is accompanied by the following pathologies:
- the metabolic disorders;
- the drop in the level of glucose in the blood;
- violation of the integrity of the blood vessels;
- the fatty transformation of the bodies;
- significant internal hemorrhage;
- irregularities in the activities of the Central nervous system;
- swelling of the brain.
Symptoms of intoxication
Symptoms of poisoning pale toadstool manifest some time after its ingestion. It often happens that a person starts to feel unwell after 8-12 hours in severe cases after 2-3 days. The period of detection of the first symptoms depends on the quantity and concentration of toxic substances in the body.
Intoxication with poison pale toadstool proceeds in four stages, each of which has characteristic features:
- The latent period. The duration of this stage ranges from 6 to 9 hours, in rare cases up to 15-16 hours. For a man characterized by nonspecific signs of the disease: malaise, fatigue, General weakness of the body. Most often they occur in 8-10 hours after ingestion of poisonous mushrooms.
- The period of acute gastroenteritis. This phase of the disease lasts about 2-4 days. It is characterized by the following symptoms:
- sudden profuse vomiting eaten food or bile;
- incessant nausea;
- spastic pain in the abdomen and cramps in the intestines;
- diarrhea with blood in the frequency of bowel movements up to 25 times a day;
- thirst, dry mouth as a result of violation of water balance in the body, quench that is not obtained due to recurrent vomiting;
- dizziness, weakness, headache;
- reduction in blood pressure;
- cramps of calf muscles due to the loss of a large amount of chlorine;
- the decrease in the amount of urine or its absence;
- blurred vision.
In the case of severe poisoning by toadstool at this stage, the possible violation of the cardiovascular system.
- The period of supposed recovery. Is subsidence of spasmodic pain in the abdomen, nausea and vomiting, feel better. Thus the biochemical analysis of blood evidence of serious irregularities in the functioning of the liver. The toxins continue to spread throughout the body, impairing the activity of organs and systems. The improvement stage lasts about a day, but in the case of severe intoxication it may not be observed. Disease immediately proceeds to the next phase of development.
- The period of acute renal and liver failure. Clinical manifestations of this stage depend on the stage of disorders of the liver and expressed by the following characteristics:
- yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes of the eyes and the mouth;
- the renewal of intestinal colic and diarrhea;
- darkening of urine;
- the appearance of heaviness and pain in the right hypochondrium;
These symptoms indicate kidney disease, abnormal increase in size of the liver and malfunction.
In case of accidental ingestion of death caps man needs immediate high quality medical care. With the development of the first signs of intoxication necessary to call an ambulance.
Before the arrival of the doctor should try to help the patient. First aid if poisoning pale toadstool is to implement a sequence of actions to remove toxins from the body. To do this:
- To wash out the stomach to the victim. Man with signs of poisoning, you must drink 5-6glasses of warm salted water, and then press your fingers at the base of the tongue. This will cause a gag reflex.
- To put an enema or drink a laxative drug. In the absence of diarrhea to cleanse the bowel to accelerate the removal of toxins and decrease their absorption into the blood.
- Make the sorbents, like activated carbon.
- Replenish lost fluid. As a result of frequent vomiting is a violation of water-salt balance in the body. To restore it you need to drink water or cool tea in small portions.
The activities that can be done at home is completed. Other actions to save human life should be engaged in the medical institution.
For the diagnosis of poisoning using multiple methods used in the complex:
- Clinical examination involves inspection of the patient, investigate complaints and medical history. It is important that the patient or the relatives are told by the diet and subsequent symptoms.
- Instrumental diagnosis involves the study of hemodynamics of blood circulation, hourly urine output and other necessary tests.
- Toxicological studies reveal the presence in the body of the toxin, determine its qualitative and quantitative characteristics, the effects on the body.
- Pathological diagnosis is carried out in the case of death of the patient. The result is judicial-medical examination determined the substance that caused the death.
In medicine there is no antidote and the antidote to death caps, so basic health measures aimed at reducing the toxic effects and the elimination of the damage caused.
Hospital treatment includes the following procedures:
- deep cleansing of the gastrointestinal tract;
- introduction of saline and drugs that prevent dehydration;
- formulation of the dropper with glucose;
- vnepochechny cleansing the blood of toxins;
- protivoraketnaya therapy, including the acceptance of penicillin or other drugs;
- intravenous administration of funds for reinforcement of the cardiac muscle;
- the use of drugs that prevent high blood clotting;
- the use of drugs that support the liver and kidneys.
The Outlook for the recovery of the patient depends on the concentration of poison in the blood, speed treatment in a medical establishment and the General condition of organs and systems of the human body.
Eating quarters mushroom toadstool medium size weighing 30-50 grams leads to heavy intoxication. For children, this dose becomes lethal. Clinical data indicate that the lethal dose of pale toadstool, for the adult healthy person in 90% of cases, probably at one of the mushroom pale toadstool.
In severe poisoning often results in death of patient within 10 days from renal, cardiac or hepatic failure. Intoxication of average weight removed by treatment for 3-4 weeks. In mild poisoning, recovery occurs within a few days with timely provision of medical care.
In most cases, complete cure from poisoning toadstool involves the restoration of the normal functioning of all organs and body systems. However, in cases of severe intoxication possible the consequences, such as disruption of the functioning of the liver and kidney, pathology of the cardiovascular system, reducing attention and memory.
To prevent poisoning pale toadstool should observe the following rules:
- do not buy mushrooms from strangers of street vendors;
- for self-collection to remember distinguishing features white toadstool;
- do not collect mushrooms growing next to poisonous brethren because spores can spread via wind.
Upon detection of the first symptoms of poisoning after eating mushrooms should immediately contact the medical facility. It can save lives and health.