How to distinguish edible mushroom from inedible at home
The people who once participated in the quiet hunting, see what this unusual and entertaining experience. Feel the true excitement of a hunter at the sight of strong white fungus, orange-cap boletus, or boletus. There is a slight fatigue and a lot of satisfaction from fermentation through a colorful autumn forest which is filled with invigorating smells. But there is a great danger – poisonous and false representatives, which can lead to severe poisoning and even death. To the joy of silent hunting not disappeared after lunch, you should know how to distinguish edible mushroom from inedible instances.
What you need to know
There are two reasons why you need a good understanding of the types of mushrooms, before you start collecting them. One of the reasons is security. Fungi are so toxic representatives, using which you can very quickly die. The second reason is practicality. After collecting a full basket, man's long transfers this load through the woods, and then very upset if all the contents have to throw away as unfit for cooking. Also, you shouldn't just cut the poisonous instances that definitely should not be consumed person. Such vegetation is often used by animals as food or medicine.
All the mushrooms are divided into several subgroups, each of which includes more than a hundred representatives:
- Weakly poisonous.
- Is highly poisonous.
Experienced mushroom pickers in some areas to collect hundreds of edible varieties, but it is available only to those who are good they understand. Novice mushroom is better to take for example just a couple of types and a good understanding of how to distinguish poisonous mushrooms from edible.
No need to deal with picking, if not basic knowledge. This often leads to poisonings of entire families.
First we need to understand exactly what kind of mushrooms are poisonous, and avoid them in the woods, away from sin. The most toxic representative – pale toadstool. Enough one little piece of mushroom that will go into a common pot, and the whole family will receive severe poisoning, perhaps fatal. Fortunately, to distinguish edible mushrooms from toadstools easy. The toadstool has several distinctive features that allow to identify it among other relatives:
- oblong slim leg;
- extensive skirt under the cap;
- the stem at the base as if sticking out of the glass.
At the same time, Russula, which is very often confused with the toadstool, looks quite different. She, too, thin smooth stem, but no skirt and glass at the base. Therefore, before cutting, you need to dig up leaves and debris at the base of the legs and to check if there are similar features.
Highly resembles pale toadstool, fly agaric and smelly. He has a little yellowish color and a cone-shaped hat. The way to recognize this instance is simple, it is enough to break the mold and it will exude an unpleasant smell. This Amanita is the most poisonous, and absolutely not like usual red or green mushrooms.
Volcanica of pathiar is a very poisonous member of the family. It is easier to understand that before you mushroom the risk, in the case when side by side grow of different age plants. Hats of young volcanic have a conical shape, whitish color. As the plant ages, the hat straightens up and changes color. First, the hat is fully yellow and then red. The leg is painted in the same shade as the hat, and extends well below.
Talkie Tina voskovaja – poisonous mushroom that quite often gets in the baskets beginners mushroom. This instance is a white color, a wonderful taste and aroma. To not fall for these attractive features, it is enough to carefully consider records that are on the lower region of the cap, they are smoothly moving on the foot and would mate with her.
To begin to engage in silent hunt better under the guidance of experienced mushroomers, which not only show and tell of the subtleties of the collection, but will monitor the newbie.
Such fruits do not typically contain enough venom to cause considerable harm. But they can spoil the dish, giving specific taste and aroma. In addition, people that tasted them, experiencing weakness and indigestion.
Gall fungus is often taken young for the white mushroom or boletus. Under the bonnet you may notice the tube pink hue, this time at the edible white these tubes are yellowish. The method of determination is simple - if a hat to break it in the middle will be too pinkish color, which is not typical for edible representatives.
Almost identical to edible mushrooms and about. Edible solely of a brownish color, and about may have different color - from yellow to green. These mushrooms taste very bitter.
Inexperienced mushroom pickers often confused with good mushrooms and about. To distinguish them from each other is possible only on the flavor, thins about the stench.
False chanterelles too often fall into the baskets of the mushroom pickers. Thoughthe difference is quite noticeable, about the representatives of the more vivid and beautiful to look at, while a good chanterelles irregular shape and jagged edges.
There are also conditionally edible mushrooms, but they are trying to avoid even experienced mushroom pickers. If the experience in the collection no, better to cut only those instances in which safety have complete confidence.
Misconceptions in the identification of poisonous mushrooms
Signs of edible mushrooms, which some beginners mushroom misguided:
- Inedible specimens smell bad and unattractive in appearance. Actually this is not so, very often, the mushrooms and toadstools look more beautiful than their edible relatives.
- If the hats are there worms and insects, they are poisonous. If someone were to ask an experienced mushroom picker eat the slugs worms and poisonous mushrooms, then the answer is Yes. Some poisonous plants are eaten not only insects, but also animals. Therefore, this characteristic is not significant.
- There is a misconception that you can eat even the poisonous mushrooms at a young age without injury. This is absolutely not true, cracker deadly in any case.
To identify dangerous fruits on the basis of questionable recommendations impossible. As practice shows, even the presence of insects on the cap is not talking about the edibility of the product. Poisonous mushrooms, or not possible precisely to tell, only knowing the structural features of a class.
How to check edibility at home
In the woods collecting mushrooms, you need to be extremely cautious. If there are questionable instances, it is not necessary to put it in the basket, even if they are very attractive.
If you have doubts, then before you cook, you need to check the mushrooms. How to check mushrooms? To do this, you can bring an experienced mushroom gatherers, to put the photo in the Internet, or to consult local residents. In normal home almost impossible to identify poisonous instance, although there are a lot of people's ways.
Many people send each other a recipe for how to identify poisonous mushrooms when cooking. For this purpose the onions and garlic, put in a saucepan with the forest. It is believed that the bulb is blue, if the mushrooms are poisonous, which in fact is not so. Onions and garlic will change the normal color, if you touch the mushroom, not because of the fact that it is poisonous. The color changes because they have the enzyme tyrosinase, and not a toxic substance. So the onion as a quality indicator of poisonous mushrooms quite effective. Some people wonder, so what color is the bow, if you boil the mushrooms are poisonous. The color of the bow under the action of the poison mushroom did not change as garlic. You can cook with onions a real stinker, and it will remain the same color.
Done wrong and the opinion that silver spoon should darken in the broth where there's a poisonous fruit. In fact, silver will darken from contact with the sulfur that is in all mushrooms.
The only sure way to identify poisonous mushrooms is to try it in raw form taste. Experienced mushroom pickers, if there is any doubt, cut the fruit and try the cut, if it is bitter, then the fungus just throw.
Onions when cooked poisonous mushrooms look exactly the same as in the preparation of edible fruit. If there is doubt in the quality of the product, it is better to just throw in the trash and not to tempt fate.
When edible mushrooms can become poisonous
Even those mushrooms that are edible under certain conditions are dangerous:
- Old mushrooms – they have breed pathogenic organisms and mold.
- Mushrooms which grew in the forest, processed poisons.
- At home preservation did not comply with the technology of preparation of canned food and cause botulism.
- Fruits collected near roads – they are like a sponge to absorb heavy metals.
- Mushrooms which without pretreatment has upotrebimye in food.
- If one poisonous mushroom accidentally cooked with edible fruit, it becomes poisonous dish.
If home preparation of pickles from mushrooms you need to follow certain rules. First, the fruit is carefully sorted out, throwing suspicious, then wash in several waters, and then boiled. You can then mushrooms to glaze, freeze or dry.
How to prevent poisoning
To quiet hunting brought only pleasure and not cause unpleasant moments, you need to follow certain rules:
- Gather only well-known varieties.
- Do not cut off old fruits and especially near the roads.
- Before cooking boil the product in a few waters at least 20 minutes, then rinse them under running water. In this way, the poison of most fungi neutralized.
- You can dry the mushrooms, strung on thread and hanging in a well ventilated area. The poison in this way may evaporate.
These two methods do not apply to just one poisonous mushroom – a pale toadstool.
What could be nicer than to wander through the autumn forest with a basket at the ready. Particularly interesting is in the company of friends, when there is real excitement. To quiet hunting did not end the trouble, with a need to takeexperienced mushroom picker and collect only the familiar mushrooms.