Bromism – what it is, symptoms, treatment
Bromine is a chemical substance that is related to poisons. It is widely used in medicine and various industries. Poisoning with this substance can be both acute and chronic. In this article, we discussed the poisoning with bromine, its causes, clinical manifestations, components of treatment and first aid.
The causes of poisoning
Bromine is a toxic substance. They can be poisoned by inhalation of fumes, eating him inside. Once on the surface of the skin or mucous membranes, it can cause a chemical burn.
Doctors distinguish two forms of poisoning with this chemical: acute and chronic. Acute intoxication develops when a momentary solid contact with the chemical. Long-term use of bromine or when it develops bromism is a chronic poisoning, which affects the nervous system and internal organs.
The causes of bromine poisoning are listed next.
- Separate use of bromide of sodium. This medical drug is used in psychiatry in the treatment of neurosis and depression. Uncontrolled treatment with this sedative causes chronic poisoning, bromizma. The dose of bromide of sodium must be calculated by the attending doctor individually for each patient.
- Violation of safety rules when working with bromine. If its concentration in the air exceeds 0.01 percent develops acute poisoning.
- Processing of plants with pesticides, which include bromine. While poison can the people working in these substances, and people who eat plants grown on treated soil bromine.
Please note that, according to the norms and safety rules, work with bromine only in a gas mask or a special respirator. All skin and mucous membranes must be covered with a protective suit.
Clinical features of poisoning
Symptoms of poisoning by bromine depend on the severity of the process. Chronic and acute intoxication differ from other clinical manifestations. The following are the symptoms of bromine poisoning.
Symptoms of acute poisoning
Acute toxicity most often develop during inhalation of bromine fumes. Symptoms increase rapidly. When the concentration of bromine to 0.02% develop acute poisoning can lead to death.
Symptoms of acute bromide intoxication:
- watery eyes;
- attacks of dry cough;
- shortness of breath of mixed character;
- tachycardia – rapid heartbeat;
- disturbance of consciousness and the emergence of seizures.
Symptoms of bromism
Chronic bromine intoxication is not less dangerous to humans than acute poisoning. In the nervous tissues and internal organs develop serious changes, leading to malfunction of the whole organism. Clinical signs of bromism include:
- pallor of the skin (develops as a result of anemia);
- rapid and unexplained weight loss;
- apathy, lethargy, indifference to everything;
- the menstrual cycle in women, erection problems in men;
- decreased libido;
- impaired judgment, memory loss;
- the appearance of blood veins in the stool;
- tremor of the hands;
- swaying gait, loss of coordination;
- the appearance of seals and nodules on the skin;
- inflammation of the lymph nodes.
What to do in case of acute poisoning with bromine
If a person began to appear symptoms of acute bromine poisoning, you should immediately withdraw it from a dirty room into fresh air.
Please note that during the victim from the contaminated bromine premises need to take care of their own safety. Wear a gas mask or respirator, and only then go into the danger zone.
After removing the patient to fresh air call an ambulance. If the affected people are few, don't forget to mention this when you call the doctors.
Before the arrival of doctors try to reassure the patient. Let him drink water or sweet tea. Wash him with plain water and allow to rinse my mouth.
If the person lost consciousness before the arrival of doctors, lay it on a hard surface and turn his head to one side. Monitor his breathing and pulse, when they stop, proceed to chest compressions.
Doctors SMP will be given first aid, they put him on drugs that regulate the heart and respiration, connects it to an oxygen tank. Further treatment will be performed in the intensive care units.
Treatment of bromism
When the first signs of chronic poisoning bromine should immediately cease contact with him. If you are taking sedatives, which include bromine, cancel them. You should then seek the assistance of local therapist or doctor who prescribed you the sodium bromide.
The treatment of early stage bromizma consists of diet and avoid re-contact with bromine. In severe poisoning therapy consists of treatment of the effects of intoxication. Women are sent to a gynecologist, who treats dysmenorrhea(disorders of menstruation).
Bromine poisoning can be acute or chronic. The appearance of the first symptoms of bromine poisoning, you should immediately seek medical help. First, the bromine attacks the nervous system. Bromism accompanied by a decline in memory and mental abilities. All these changes are fixable and can be cured by a doctor. To self-medicate bromine intoxication is dangerous, only a doctor after examination of the patient will be able to objectively assess its condition and to assign an individual the right treatment.