Preparation of Medicine: a lethal dose and overdose
The medicine is a drug to eliminate insomnia periodic or systematic. It is prescribed to patients with sleep disorders. The medication comes in tablet form and intended for oral use only (inside). Failure to comply with treatment regimens symptoms of overdose Sanmilan, which are manifested in varying degrees of severity to the body.
Chemical composition and properties of drugs
The main active ingredient of the drug is doxylamine. It is a chemical compound with a strong anticholinergic action. It blocks acetylcholine, the natural mediator (the biologically active component, transmitting impulses between cells), which is involved in synaptic transmission in the brain. The medicine blocks this process and fully substitutes for the mediator themselves.
The drug belongs to hypnotic means. It is a psychoactive drug that is used for the rapid onset of sleep, ensuring its duration and quality. It does not affect the sequence of the phases of sleep.
In addition to hypnotic effect, tablets the effect of:
- sedative (calming);
- antihistamines (anti-allergic);
- anaesthetic (analgesic).
After administration the drug is absorbed in the intestine, rapidly absorbed into the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, is distributed in organs and tissues. The active ingredient breaks down in the liver and excreted by the kidneys with urine (> 60%), small amount of faeces.
Symptoms of overdose medicine
The drug was initiated with minimal doses and, if necessary, gradually increase. Initially prescribed half a tab. times a day. According to indications the maximum daily dose may reach 2 tab.
Overdose Sanmilan often occurs in the case of intentional exceeding of the prescribed doses with the aim of enhancing the hypnotic effect.
The first symptom of acute poisoning is a constant drowsiness in the daytime. In parallel, signs of anticholinergic side effects associated with impaired interaction of the neurotransmitter with the receptor:
- inhibition of the Central nervous system;
- impaired memory;
- the development of delirium (a mental disorder, confusion);
- increased intraocular pressure with the risk of developing angle-closure glaucoma;
- dilated pupils;
- dry conjunctivitis;
- violation of act of swallowing;
- nervous excitement;
- continuous drying of the oral mucosa.
The drug is strictly forbidden to use in pediatric practice. If the result of disregard of rules of storage of the drug the child has eaten tablets, the symptoms he displays are more pronounced. Marked hallucinations and acetone movements were involuntary, recurring worm-like movements of the upper and lower extremities, torso. In severe cases developed convulsions.
Overdose of anticholinergic substances leads to disruption of the internal organs. Due to the lack of normal smooth muscle tone (atony) in patients difficult urination. Disturbed peristalsis of the intestine triggers the formation of constipation.
Drinking large quantities of the drug the Medicine affects the functionality of the reproductive system. In men is reduced erection, occasional failures of ejaculation. The result is enhanced retention of urine develops prostatitis. Women have anorgasmia.
In severe cases the poisoning is diagnosed, rabdomioliz – a set of symptoms that characterize the highest degree of myopathy (progressive neuromuscular disease). Amazed and destroyed muscle cells. This leads to an increase in the level of the band (an enzyme used by the body during physical activity) and myoglobin (protein kislorodozawisimae muscle and myocardium, which creates an oxygen reserve). An excess of these substances concentrated in the urine, and causes acute kidney failure.
At the same time can develop such States:
- obstruction (obstruction) of the urinary bladder;
- intestinal obstruction;
- fecal obstruction (lack of bowel movements);
- violation of thermoregulation of the body (in the summer can lead to heat stroke).
Lethal dose Sarmila unknown. To death with a strong overdose Sanmilan leads to acute renal failure, which causes coma.
Side effects due to overdose
The most frequent adverse effects of overdose, dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients suffer from constant constipation. From the cardiovascular system is tachycardia (rapid heartbeat).
In day time there is a lack of energy, sleepiness, decreased performance and physical activity.
Sometimes develop local allergic reactions:
- redness and itching of the skin;
- rash, urticaria;
- allergic dermatitis;
If the patient took pills 2 or more months after the end of treatment, can appear withdrawal syndrome, which is characterized by symptoms of flu – fever, nausea, vomiting, disorders of stool, movement disorders, sometimes mental confusion.
Chronic administration of large doses of the drug can cause psychological dependence. After a sharpthe abolition of the formed substance-induced psychosis, which manifests as agitation, hallucinations, disorientingly. There are side effects:
- cognitive impairment (decreased mental capacity, memory);
- dysphoria (painfully low mood);
- neurological disorders.
To eliminate overdose there is no specific antidote. The treatment is symptomatic. To reduce the signs of poisoning and the elimination of toxins shown the administration of activated charcoal or other sorbents – Polisorb, Enterosgel, Smectite.