Lidocaine: overdose, poisoning, intolerance
Lidocaine belongs to the local anesthetic drugs. Like any other medical drug, lidocaine, has no side effects, which can arise at individual intolerance. Side-effects can also lead to overdose of lidocaine, which occurs when the improper application.
The description of the drug
Lidocaine is a common medical product which is used for local anesthesia. The vehicle belongs to the group of local anesthetics that at a certain dosage block at the time of nerve conduction. Lidocaine also refers to antiarrhythmic drugs.
This drug is often used when it is necessary to undergo some painful treatments or research, and sometimes during minor surgery. For example, a very popular use of lidocaine during dental procedures or the imposition and removal of sutures. Often, an anesthetic used for spinal anesthesia in childbirth.
Available in different form:
- solution for injections (available in multiple percent, contained in ampoules);
- eye drops;
- gel for external use;
- spray for local use.
For certain procedures select a particular form of the medicine. Also take into account the patient's age and other specific factors. Medical institutions are mainly used ampoules with injectable solution.
The drug solution in a concentration of 2% is used primarily for ophthalmic, dental and minor surgical practices. Solution at a concentration of 10% is used as antiarrhythmic agents. This concentration is also frequently used for application anesthesia of the mucous membranes (used in various fields of medicine).
The effect of the drug
The main action of the drug intended to block the conduction of nerve impulses. If the tool is used as intramuscular injections, mestnoanesteziruyuschy the effect occurs quite quickly.
Drug in the local application expands blood vessels, but does not cause irritation. The level of absorbability depends on the place of application and dosage. For example, on mucous remedy is absorbed better than on the skin.
Sometimes patients clarify what will happen if you drink lidocaine. Make the tool inside is impossible. The drug is applied intramuscularly or topically. For irrigation, for example, of the throat used tool in the form of a spray and with extreme caution, because lidocaine has a property of being easily absorbed from the respiratory tract and negligence can occur overdose.
The duration of action of drug depends on the dosage. It is worth noting that this drug is more effective than procaine. Anesthetic action is faster and lasts much longer – up to 60-75 minutes.
Lidocaine fairly easily reacts with other drugs. Effect of some medication it can strengthen, and others, on the contrary, to weaken. Therefore, before using lidocaine in conjunction with other drugs, you should consult with your doctor. Categorically not allowed to use this drug with alcohol, which can cause respiratory failure.
A large part of the drug is metabolized through the liver. The remainder is excreted through the kidneys.
Harmful lidocaine, depends on how well you used the tool. Anesthetic drug has some contraindications, so before applying you should consider this fact. The use of the funds without prior consultation with a doctor is unacceptable, as unintended consequences.
Do not use the drug if the patient has:
- individual intolerance;
- diseases of the brain or nervous system infectious nature;
- myasthenia gravis;
- a tumor in the brain.
Unacceptable use of funds during pregnancy and the lactation period. You also can not use lidocaine if the patient is a child under the age of 12.
The anesthetic there are other contraindications, among which we can highlight:
- atrioventricular block (2nd and 3rd degree).
- heart failure (2nd and 3rd degree).
- renal failure severe;
- syndrome weakness sinusnogo hub;
- low pressure.
With extreme caution lidocain is assigned if the patient has an arrhythmia history or other cardiac diseases, problems with blood clotting or epilepsy. This anesthesia is also very carefully used in the elderly.
Since lidocaine cannot be used in many specific diseases, assign it can only be a doctor after examining the condition of the body. The specialist must consider many factors (e.g., age, condition of the heart and liver), before assigning the drug. Self-application of funds is unacceptable, as there are very strict rulesuse, the violation of which can lead to negative consequences or cause poisoning lidocaine.
The use of the drug lidocaine can lead to such side effects as:
- impaired blood pressure (may increase or decrease);
- nausea and subsequent vomiting;
- loss of consciousness;
- allergic reactions are possible.
In some cases, the use of this tool can lead to anaphylactic shockif before the appointment the doctor asked the patient about acceptability of the lidocaine.
The drug must enter in small doses in the least concentrations to get the desired effect. Maximum dose for adults is 300 mg Overdose occur if the doctor accidentally injected with a toxic dose of lidocaine. If incorrectly calculate the amount of funds that may be very unpleasant reaction of the body. For example, lidocaine overdose may cause symptoms such as:
- muscle weakness;
- trembling of the limbs;
- cramps of the extremities;
- the pressure reduction;
- loss of consciousness;
- nausea, and vomiting.
If physiotherapeutic procedure was not considered or noticed these ailments and the doctor continues to introduce medication can further aggravate the patient's condition. In rare cases, lethal dose that leads to respiratory failure.
Do not confuse an overdose with a sensitivity to the drug. Overdose is the result of incompetent approach. Practitioners with considerable experience are usually carefully monitor the patient during drug administration.
To help, you need to determine the condition of the victim. If symptoms of overdose lungs, then the patient should be laid and to provide him with fresh air. Usually in this case the ailments are easy, the person recovers.
If the overdose happened at home and symptoms such as, for example, spasms of the hands or feet, then you need to urgently seek professional help. Further actions decided by a doctor depending on the degree of overdose. Appointed anticonvulsants and other medications to normalize the condition. Violations of the Central nervous system are avoided by, for example, drugs benzodiazepinovogo series. If there is bradycardia, atropine is used intravenously in a dose of 0.5-1 mg. In severe cases, resorted to resuscitation events.
If you have ever reported the sensitivity to some drugs, before using lidocaine, you should inform the doctor. Designate yourself or loved ones this medication is not recommended. If the remedy prescribed by the doctor, then you need to strictly follow the prescribed dosage and pattern of use. During the introduction of the drug need to monitor the body's response.