Clonidine poisoning, the lethal dose for humans
Clonidine is a drug that enjoys great popularity among hypertensive patients (people suffering persistent, and sometimes sharp rise in blood pressure). And its assistance is resorted to in criminal circles and suicidal customized (categories of citizens are deliberately willing to take his own life). Clonidine poisoning is quite common in the practice of toxicology.
The main active ingredient in this medication is clonidine. It happens in three main forms:
- tablets (dosage 0.075 mg and 0.15 mg);
- solution for injections in ampoules (0.01 mg/1 ml);
- solution for instillation in tubes with dropper (dosage varies from 0.125 to 0.5% solution of clonidine).
Indications and contraindications
In therapeutic doses the drug is indicated in such cases:
- hypertensive crisis (sharp rise in blood pressure up);
- hypertension (persistent chronic increase in pressure);
- breaking the opium addicts;
- primary open angle glaucoma;
- kidney disease;
- headaches on the background of problems with blood vessels;
- the fight against nicotine addiction.
To unsubscribe from clonidine should be under these conditions:
- individual intolerance to clonidine;
- hypotension (low blood pressure);
- marked accumulation of cholesterol and narrowing of the arteries in the brain;
- high levels of porphyrin in the blood;
- obvious bradycardia (low heart rate);
- the period of carrying a child and lactation;
- disorders emotionally (depression, panic attacks);
- the adoption of alcohol.
If you use this substance in reasonable dosages and purpose of a specialist, it will only benefit. But in the underworld it is widely used to harm.
Clonidine in criminal circles
Since the nineties the word "klofelinschica" quite often you can hear in the crime reports. As a rule, prostitutes to Rob their clients, add the drug in alcoholic drinks. In this case, the intoxication comes in a matter of minutes, a person loses orientation and soundly asleep.
Due to improperly calculated dosages the victim can get severely clonidine poisoning. And in the worst case die.
Lethal dose clonidine for humans is 0.1 mg/kg of body weight. This is equivalent to 40-50 tablets a dosage of 0.15 mg.
To recognize the presence of clonidine in alcohol difficult. As well as its presence in the organism is difficult to prove in an autopsy. But clonidine is dangerous not only in combination with alcohol. Large dosage of this drug with the means to increase potency also to anything good does not. These drugs have a completely different pharmacological effect. Means to improve erectile function increase blood pressure and clonidine, on the contrary, lowers. Against this background, increases the risk of rupture of blood vessels, brain hemorrhage, heart attack, heart failure.
The clinical picture of poisoning
When clonidine poisoning experts distinguish three main degrees of severity of pathology.
For easy stage is characterized by such symptoms:
- loss of coordination;
- person sleepy;
- dry mouth;
- pupils are narrowed, but continue to respond to light;
- decreases blood pressure;
- there is bradycardia;
- the skin is pale.
For the poisoning of moderate severity is characterized by such features:
- increased dryness of the mucous membranes;
- body temperature decreases;
- appears cold clammy sweat;
- slows reactions (physical and emotional);
- the patient speaks monosyllabic words.
- there has been a dramatic decline forces.
- hypotension and bradycardia are gaining momentum;
- may be soporose condition.
Severe poisoning can be diagnosed by such symptoms:
- collapse (a sharp fall in arterial and venous pressure);
- bradycardia up to 40 BPM;
- comes hypoxia of the brain;
- breathing becomes shallow or even stops;
- appear cramps;
- pupils fail to respond to light;
- memory loss;
- stupor (stupor, lethargy, drowsiness);
- on the background of oppression activity the respiratory and cardiovascular system death.
Clonidine poisoning in its symptoms are very similar to the poisoning of potassium chloride. But in this case the ECG will be visible clear signs of hyperkalemia. To be fatal enough to 15 g chloride.
Clonidine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the digestive tract than is, in fact, due to the greater likelihood of overdose and poisoning. The substance is kept in the blood long enough. The peak concentration of clonidine in the blood plasma is reached after 3-5 hours. Complete excretion from the body occurs in 3-5 days.
Intensive and symptomatic therapy
At the slightest suspicion on poisoning with clonidine should seek immediate help from professionals. To confirm the diagnosis the patient will be encouraged to conduct some diagnostic activities. The treatment will be conducted in the intensive care unit.
Infirst and foremost will be added to the detoxification (destruction and neutralization of toxic substances). This can be used the following methods:
- probe gastric lavage;
- enterosorption with activated charcoal;
- increase urine formation by introducing into the body of large amounts of fluid and diuretics;
- hemosorption – surgical method of cleaning the blood outside the body due to its contact with the sorbent.
Intravenous administration of the antidote clonidine – tolazoline.
Special attention is paid to the correction of cardiac disorders. For this purpose, anticholinergics (atropine), beta-adrenergic agonists (isoproterenol, dopamine). If the condition is complicated by atrial fibrillation or paroxysmal tachycardia, it is administered potassium chloride. And resort to pacing.
For apnea and other breathing disorders resort to auditory or tactile stimuli. To reduce the CNS depression, naloxone is administered. In a comatose state and severe disorders of the respiratory system shows the use of a ventilator.
The consequences of overdose
Clonidine is a very serious tool that should be taken only on prescription and strictly in accordance with the prescribed dosages.
Overdose clonidine itself has serious consequences. But if the drug was adopted in conjunction with alcohol, the condition can worsen until death.
It should be noted that the severity of the consequences is not directly dependent on the amount of alcohol consumed. It will be enough quite a bit of alcohol for unfavourable prognosis.
Clonidine in reasonable dosages, can ease the life of high blood pressure, and in high concentrations it can deprive a person of life and health. You should not experiment and take even small doses of alcohol during treatment with this substance. To avoid various clinical consequences, it is important to exercise vigilance and caution!