A list of poisonous and strong medicines
Among pharmaceutical drugs a group of drugs, small doses which is already having a significant impact on the body. A small overdose of these drugs leads to irreversible processes in the organism and death. These drugs included in the List of toxic and potent drugs and are subject to special consideration and rules of storage. In the instructions for use of medicines is always set to the identity of the drug to a particular group. Toxic and potent drugs belong to Lists A and B, which are approved by the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation. They require careful handling and careful observance of the doctor's instructions to avoid accidents by negligence or the deliberate infliction of harm.
The main provisions of the List of toxic and potent substances
List of toxic and potent substances approved by the standing Committee on drug control (PKKN), is periodically reviewed and updated.
It is tailored to:
- the physiological effects of natural or chemical substances from the body;
- the recommendations of the world health organization;
- existing international laws and protocols, warning illegal distribution of drugs;
- information from the criminal practices on the impact of substances on the body.
Lists of potent and poisonous substances differ from Lists A and B by the Ministry of healthcare of the Russian Federation, as they include not only drugs used in medical institutions for the treatment of various diseases, but also substances that are not included in the State register of medicines (banned for use in health authorities).
All substances specified in the Lists PKKN are listed according to their international nonproprietary names, also lists all known synonyms.
Lists poisonous substances and medicines
To the List of toxic substances (list 2 List PCCN) included 65 names of substances of plant, animal or synthetic origin, which when exposed to a living organism cause acute or chronic poisoning often leading to death. Basically it poisons natural or chemical origin, for example:
- potassium cyanide (calcium, cadmium, sodium, copper);
- hydrocyanic acid;
- the amount of belladonna alkaloids and other substances.
In list a drugs (Venena) is 116 medical preparations produced on the basis of poisonous and narcotic substances in the List of narcotic and psychotropic substances or the List of toxic substances PKKN. These include the following groups:
- antitumor (Bleomycin, Vincristine, Imifos);
- cardiac glycosides (Digitoxin, Caldigit, Metildigoxin);
- anesthetics (Ketamine, Butorphanol, Tetralin);
- psychostimulant (Methylphenidate)
- immunosuppressive (Azathioprine);
- muscle relaxant (Alkuraya chloride, Mivakuriya chloride, bromide Pipekuronia);
- m-holinoblokatory (Atropine, metotsiniya iodide, Platyphylline) and others.
These drugs are dispensed from the pharmacy is strictly on prescription with stamp of the medical institution that issued it. Free access to drugs is impossible to find.
On the label of all toxic pharmaceutical drugs must be indicated:
- method of application;
- part medications;
- the date of manufacture;
- expiration date;
- the place of manufacture;
- signatures of the persons who took part in the cooking process.
Preparations containing poisons, psychotropic substances or drugs, must be stamped on the label with a warning that says "Poison".
Lists of potent substances and medicines
Substances of natural or synthetic origin, small doses of which have a significant impact on the body, called potent substances. They are included in the Sheet 1 List of toxic and potent drugs and has 126 items.
On the basis of this list a List B (Heroica) of the 326 finished drugs in various forms (tinctures, tablets, Supplements, capsules, suppositories, etc.) these include, For example:
- NSAIDs (Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin);
- antibiotics (Azithromycin, Gentamicin, Oxacillin);
- hypnotics (Zolpidem tartrate, Zopiclone);
- corticosteroids (Hydrocortisone, Dexamethasone, Prednisolone);
- antidepressants (Clomipramine, Maprotiline, Metralindole);
- gormonoterapii funds (Clomiphene Mestranol, Testosterone);
- vitamins (Hydroxocobalamin, Calcium Pantothenate, Nicotinic acid) and other group of drugs.
All potent the finished medicinal product should, as poisonous, sold by prescription, but in practice, most pharmacists in the sale of the majority of them do not require a prescription, they can be freely purchased at any pharmacy network. Therein lies their danger for the population for self-medication.
Store toxic and potent drugs
To prevent poisoning or abuse in your personal or criminal purposes by the Ministry of healthprovides Rules for storing poisons, narcotics, and potent drugs from Lists A and B. For these groups of drugs should be respected and special storage conditions to ensure their quality and safety when used as directed.
During storage in the pharmacy of toxic and potent drugs, the organization must have necessary facilities, equipment and supplies that meet all legal requirements.
- Pharmacy store drugs is equipped with multi-level alarm system connected to the remote surveillance of a licensed security company. Necessarily the presence of a fire alarm.
- The storage should be equipped with steel entrance door, or wooden, but lined with metal (the thickness of which not less than 40 mm) with a door opening of a steel profile.
- All the Windows of the pharmacy provision of steel grating with a fine pattern.
Storage of poisonous medicines shall be carried out on the basis of the order of Ministry of health of the Russian Federation of 1997. A prescription for this stand out special cabinets and safes. Particularly toxic substances are stored separately from the other poisons and drugs in the inner, lockable, compartment of the safe.
Narcotic and poisonous drugs are kept in a box marked: "A. Venena" with the names of all the stored drugs and their quantity. Also in this Cabinet to store the necessary instruments and tools used for the preparation of medicines on prescription. Safe during the day must be closed (it only opens when needed, when authorized by the order, the pharmacist or head, which the key is stored). At night the safe is sealed and plombirovaniya.
The entrance to the room where the safe is located is restricted. Access to it is issued with the permission of the police only to people whose work is connected directly with the preparation of medicines from poisonous, psychotropic and narcotic substances.
Of the safe door that holds potent drugs, are marked "B. Heroica". Must indicate the number and name of the drug contained therein. Such stringent requirements as in the storage of toxic agents, no access to the Cabinet have authorized pharmacists, key lock safe.
Precautions for the handling of toxic and potent substances
Handling of toxic substances demands caution. It is important to adhere to the following rules.
- Work with a potent, narcotic and poisonous drugs can only specially trained personnel over 18 years of age, knows about the impact of toxic substances on the body and about the risks associated with such work.
- Banned from working with poisons and drugs for pregnant and lactating women.
- Poisonous drugs are issued to the public or to the medical institution only on a specially prepared form – recipe. It is written in legible handwriting without any mistakes and corrections by a qualified technician, indicating the surname and initial. Inaccuracies or errors in the recipe may cause an accident.
- The instruments used for the preparation of a prescription, you need to constantly check and adjust the tools and fixtures are thoroughly washed and disinfected.
- Poisonous and narcotic substances are assigned only in extreme cases, and the dose is accurately calculated by the doctor based on the age and weight of the patient, the treatment is strictly forbidden to exceed.
- In case of accidental or deliberate consumption of high dose medicines from List A victim as soon as possible (in minutes) should be taken to medical facility for emergency care. No resuscitation measures (connection to the device of artificial ventilation of lungs, haemodialysis, intravenous fluids, and diuretics) life is poisoned by the poisons of man can not be saved.
Potent drugs if you exceed the recommended single or daily dose cause symptoms of severe poisoning. Chronic administration of these drugs may be changes in the functioning of internal organs and systems of the body, a syndrome of addiction and cancellations, sometimes leading to death.
Toxic and potent drugs in small doses have a therapeutic effect, but even a small excess or abuse cause extremely negative consequences for health resulting in disability and death. When dealing with any kind of medicine (a large number of potent drugs used in daily life to alleviate symptoms of various diseases and assigned themselves) should be careful and proceed with caution.
Misuse of poisonous, narcotic or psychotropic drugs always ends tragically.